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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.18.2001.tde-27112001-161904
Document
Author
Full name
Guilherme Camargo Ferraz Costa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2001
Supervisor
Committee
Silva, Antonio Nelson Rodrigues da (President)
Carvalho, André Carlos Ponce de Leon Ferreira de
Vasconcelos, Eduardo Alcantara de
Title in Portuguese
Uma avaliação do consumo de energia com transportes em cidades do estado de São Paulo.
Keywords in Portuguese
consumo de energia
espalhamento urbano
redes neurais artificiais
SIG
Abstract in Portuguese
Dados reais apontam um expressivo aumento do consumo de combustível no Brasil e no mundo, além de um crescimento acelerado da população urbana. Ambos os processos vem ocorrendo sem um controle adequado no país e, como conseqüência, têm surgido grandes deseconomias urbanas, tais como: congestionamentos, poluição ambiental, consumo exagerado de combustíveis e uso inadequado do espaço viário. Neste contexto, quaisquer iniciativas no intuito de frear estas deseconomias são relevantes e oportunas, tanto que pesquisas nacionais e internacionais vêm sendo realizadas buscando entender melhor os fatores que mais interferem na energia gasta com transportes. O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a relação entre o consumo de energia com transportes e algumas variáveis espaciais e sócio-econômicas dos municípios do estado de São Paulo com população superior a 50 mil habitantes. A caracterização dos padrões de forma das áreas urbanizadas foi viabilizada graças aos recursos de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas, que possibilitaram determinar com relativa precisão as variáveis espaciais das manchas urbanas a partir de imagens de satélite georeferenciadas. Uma vez levantados todos os dados possíveis, procedeu-se a uma análise através do emprego de Redes Neurais Artificiais, ferramenta que possibilita identificar e classificar as variáveis de acordo com suas importâncias relativas no consumo de energia, que é a variável dependente do modelo. Os resultados encontrados para as cidades paulistas pesquisadas confirmam a tendência internacional, sobretudo no que concerne à grande relevância da densidade populacional urbana, juntamente com outras características sócio-econômicas, sobre o consumo de energia com transportes. Variáveis como a população urbana, a densidade populacional e o nível de empregos no comércio revelaram-se como as de maior importância relativa no contexto analisado.
Title in English
Energy use for transportation in cities of the state of São Paulo.
Keywords in English
Artificial neural networks
energy use
GIS
urban sprawl
Abstract in English
The world has been experiencing in recent years an unprecedented increase in the amount of fuel consumed for transportation purposes, in addition to a fast growth of the urban population. Those conditions were also found in Brazil, where they have produced several problems for urban areas, such as: traffic congestion, environmental pollution, high fuel consumption, and an improper use of the urban space. In such a context, any attempt to reduce those problems and their consequences is relevant and opportune. That is the reason why a considerable research effort is being directed to the issue at both national and international levels, in order to better understand the factors that most significantly contribute for the high levels of energy use for transportation.The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between energy consumption for transportation and a few selected variables related to urban form and socioeconomic characteristics of urbanized areas with more then 50,000 inhabitants located in the state of São Paulo. The boundaries of the urbanized areas were obtained from satellite images georeferenced in a Geographic Information System environment, which also offered the tools for the analysis of some spatial attributes. After the spatial and socioeconomic data were combined in a single database, they were then analyzed using Artificial Neural Network models, in order to identify variables that are relevant to energy consumption for transportation, along with their relative weights.The results found with the Brazilian cities selected for the current study confirmed the trend observed in several countries worldwide, in which urban density played an important role influencing energy use for transportation. In the case studied here, other relevant input variables that considerably influenced the energy consumed for transportation were population and employment level.
 
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GuiCosta.pdf (960.84 Kbytes)
Publishing Date
2001-12-18
 
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