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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Henrique de Souza Dornelles
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Silva, Maria Bernadete Amancio Varesche (President)
Akutsu, Jorge
Gomes, Paulo Clairmont Feitosa de Lima
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização microbiana da remoção e degradação de 4-Nonilfenol em Reator Anaeróbio de Leito Fluidificado em escala aumentada
Keywords in Portuguese
Geothrix
Illumina-MiSeq
desregulador endócrino
DGGE
RALF
Surfactante
Abstract in Portuguese
O 4-Nonilfenol (4-NF) é o principal produto formado a partir da degradação do Nonilfenol etoxilado, surfactante não iônico amplamente utilizado em formulações de uso doméstico e industrial. Objetivou-se neste estudo desenvolver método de quantificação de 4-NF em HPLC; avaliar a remoção de 4-NF em reatores em batelada com co-substratos (etanol, metanol e fumarato) e avaliar a remoção e degradação de 4-NF em Reator Anaeróbio de Leito Fluidificado (RALF) em escala aumentada (20L), bem como caracterizar a comunidade microbiana estabelecida no material suporte por meio das técnicas de PCR/DGGE do gene RNAr 16S e sequenciamento massivo via plataforma Illumina-Miseq®. O RALF foi preenchido com areia como material suporte, operado com Tempo de Detenção Hidráulico (TDH) de 18,2±1,1 horas e alimentado com meio de cultura acrescido de 4-NF PESTANAL® (Sigma-Aldrich®). Análises de monitoramento da concentração de 4-NF e matéria orgânica, bem como, dos parâmetros físico-químicos foram realizadas para avaliar a estabilidade do reator quanto a remoção e degradação do composto de interesse. A operação do reator foi dividida em distintas etapas, contando com inoculação do RALF em circuito fechado, adaptação ao meio de cultura e subsequentes fases com adição de 4-NF. Para reatores em batelada a adição de 4-NF (de 288,97±96,49 a 469,98±182,42 µg L-1) favoreceu a produção média de metano acumulada (de 2.292,3 para 2.744,7 mol, respectivamente) para todos os co-susbtratos testados, todavia, retardou o tempo médio de início da produção (de 15,9 h para 107,9 h), bem como reduziu a velocidade de produção (de 24,4 para 10,9 µmol d-1). Para ensaio com adição de 4-NF e Fumarato foram verificados os maiores valores de produção acumulada de metano (3.163,68±169,17 µmol) e de remoção de DQO (75,52±0,34% para DQO inicial de 1.242,00±27,48 mg L-1), em relação aos demais ensaios com adição de 4-NF. Para a remoção de 4-NF em reatores em batelada os valores não diferiram significativamente. Para o RALF, foram verificadas eficiências médias de remoção de DQO de 90,34±6,1% (Fase I), 94,0±1,2% (Fase II), 97,0±1,3% (Fase III) e 95±1,5% (Fase IV) e 4-NF de 73,2±11,1% (Fase II), 67,3±7,3% (Fase III) e 77,88±8,9% (Fase IV). As diferentes concentrações de 4-NF aplicadas ao RALF não afetaram a eficiência de remoção de DQO e promoveram a seleção dos microrganismos que compuseram a biomassa do leito. Os gêneros mais abundantes identificados no reator sem adição de 4-NF foram Prolixibacter, Geothrix, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus e Geobacter. Os gêneros com maior abundância relativa identificados após adição de 4-NF foram os seguintes: Geothrix, Holophaga, Elusimicrobium, Paludibacter, Lactobacillus, Aeromonas, Pelobacter, Aquaspirillum, Pseudomonas, Delftia, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Ignavibacterium, Treponema, Lysinibacillus e Enterococcus.
Title in English
Microbial characterization of 4-Nonylphenol removal and degradation in anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor in upscale
Keywords in English
Geothrix
AFBR
DGGE
endocrine disruptor
Illumina-MiSeq
Surfactant
Abstract in English
4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is the main product formed in the Nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation, nonionic surfactant used in formulations of domestic and industrial use. The objective of this study was to develop a method to determine 4-NP in HPLC; to evaluate the 4-NP removal in batch reactors with co-substrates (ethanol, methanol and fumarate) and removal and degradation of 4-NP in anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) on an enlarged scale (20L), as well as characterize the microbial community established in the support material by PCR / DGGE techniques of the 16S RNAr gene and massive sequencing by the Illumina-Miseq® platform. The AFBR was filled with sand as carrier material, operated with Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 18.2±1.1 hours and fed with synthetic sewage plus 4-NP PESTANAL® (Sigma-Aldrich®). Monitoring of the 4-NP concentration and organic matter, as well as physical-chemical parameters were performed to evaluate the stability of the reactor for the removal and degradation of the compound of interest. Reactor operation was divided into different stages, with inoculation of the RALF in closed circuit, adaptation to the culture medium and subsequent phases with 4-NF addition. The addition of 4-NP (from 288.97±96.49 to 469.98±182.42 µg L-1) in batch reactors favored the average accumulated methane production (from 2,292.3 to 2,744.7 µmol, respectively) for all tested co-susbtrates, however, delayed the mean time to start production (from 15.9 h to 107.9 h), as well as reduced production rate (from 24.4 to 10.9 µmol d-1). The highest accumulated values of methane production (3,163.68 ± 169.17 µmol) and COD removal (75.52±0.34% for the initial COD of 1,242±27.48 mg L-1) were verified for the addition of 4-NP and Fumarate, compared to the other tests with addition of 4-NP. For the 4-NP removal in batch reactors the values did not differ significantly. Mean values of COD removal for the AFBR were 90.34±6.1% (Phase I), 94.0±1.2% (Phase II), 94.0±1.2% (Phase III) and 97.0±1.3% (Phase IV) and 4-NF of 73.2±11.1% (Phase II), 67.3±7.3% (Phase III) and 77.88±8.9% (Phase IV). Different concentrations of 4-NP applied to the AFBR did not affect the COD removal efficiency and promoted the selection of the microorganisms that composed the bed biomass. The most abundant genera identified in the reactor without addition of 4-NP were Prolixibacter, Geothrix, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus and Geobacter. The genotypes with the highest relative abundance identified after addition of 4-NP were as follows: Geothrix, Holophaga, Elusimicrobium, Paludibacter, Lactobacillus, Aeromonas, Pelobacter, Aquaspirillum, Pseudomonas, Delftia, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Ignavibacterium, Treponema, Lysinibacillus and Enterococcus.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-07-03
 
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