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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.18.2018.tde-21062018-091122
Document
Author
Full name
Rafael dos Santos Ferrer
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Daniel, Luiz Antonio (President)
Piveli, Roque Passos
Souza, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de
Title in Portuguese
Crescimento da biomassa algal, recuperação de nitrogênio, fósforo e remoção de patógenos em fotobiorreator (FBR) utilizado em pós-tratamento de reator UASB alimentado com água negra simulada
Keywords in Portuguese
Fósforo
Fotobiorreator
Microalga
Nitrogênio
Patógenos
Abstract in Portuguese
Os sistemas convencionais de tratamento de águas residuárias frequentemente utilizados em países tropicais não eliminam nutrientes, gerando impactos de eutrofização em corpos hídricos. Além disso, há uma crescente discussão quanto à finitude desses nutrientes e os impactos produtivos na geração de seus subprodutos. Nesse sentido, este estudo buscou avaliar o crescimento de Chlorella sorokiniana, a recuperação de nutrientes e a remoção de patógenos em fotobiorreatores tubulares (FBR). O experimento foi conduzido em fotobiorreatores, com caminho óptico de 50 mm, os quais foram alimentados com efluentes de reatores anaeróbios compostos por uma mistura de dejetos suínos e esgoto doméstico, e foi conduzido em quatro etapas. Na etapa inicial, o experimento foi conduzido em escala de bancada sob condições naturais para adaptação das microalgas ao esgoto. Posteriormente, foi feito em condições controladas para avaliação da influência do CO2 e da temperatura no processo (reator de 3 L e vazão de ar 0,2 vvm) nas temperaturas de 32 e 38°C. Depois, foi feita ampliação de escala com regime contínuo e em batelada sob condições naturais (211 L, 0,15 vvm e 2,19 L/h). E, por fim, avaliou-se a separação de algas da fase líquida e a remoção de Giardia spp. e Criptosporidium spp. Como resultados, o experimento obteve: a recuperação de fósforo de 97% e remoção de 91% para nitrogênio; a biomassa atingiu 1,15 g/L como crescimento máximo; o tanino se mostrou como um potencial coagulante para separação sólido-líquido, obtendo eficiência de 95,2% de remoção de turbidez e remoção de patógenos atingiu 2,97 log. No entanto, as altas temperaturas (acima de 45°C) comprometeram o sistema, bem como o acúmulo de nitrito que inibiu as bactérias nitratantes. Observou-se, portanto, que tanto para a temperatura de 38 °C, bem como para de 32°C, o sistema apresentou bom desempenho. Vale ressaltar que não foi necessário controle de pH, e que o crescimento sem adição de CO2 foi mais efetivo. Desse modo a tecnologia se mostrou favorável para tratamento de efluentes com nutrientes.
Title in English
Growth of algal biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, and pathogen removal in photobioreactor (FBR) used in post-treatment of UASB reactor fed with simulated black water
Keywords in English
Microalga
Nitrogen
Pathogens
Phosphorus
photobioreactor
Abstract in English
Conventional wastewater treatment systems often used in tropical countries do not eliminate nutrients, generating impacts of eutrophication on water bodies. In addition, there is a growing discussion about the finiteness of these nutrients and the productive impacts in the generation of their by-products. In this sense, this study sought to evaluate the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana, nutrient recovery and the removal of pathogens in tubular photobioreactors (FBR). The experiment was conducted in tubular photobioreactors with 50 mm optical path, which were fed effluents from anaerobic reactors composed of pig manure and domestic sewage and was conducted in four stages. In the initial stage, the experiment was conducted on bench scale under natural conditions to adapt the microalgae to the sewage. Subsequently, it was done under controlled conditions to evaluate the influence of CO2 and temperature in the process (3 L reactor and 0.2 vvm air flow) at temperatures of 32 and 38°C. Afterwards, continuous and batch scale scaling was carried out under natural conditions (211 L, 0.15 vvm and 2.19 L/h). Finally, the algae separation from the liquid phase and the removal of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were evaluated. As results, the experiment obtained: the recovery of phosphorus of 97% and removal of 91% for nitrogen; The biomass reached 1.15 g/L as maximum growth; The tannin was shown to be a potential coagulant for solid-liquid separation, obtaining 95.2% turbidity removal efficiency and removal of pathogens reaching 2.97 log. However, high temperatures (above 45°C) compromised the system as well as the accumulation of nitrite that inhibited nitrifying bacteria. It was observed, therefore, that the optimum growth temperature was shown at 38°C, and that at 32°C also showed good performance. It is worth noting that Ph-control was not necessary, and growth without CO2 addition was more effective. In this way, the technology proved to be favorable for wastewater treatment with nutrients.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-07-17
 
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