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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.18.2008.tde-22102008-193848
Document
Author
Full name
Luís Truppel Constantino
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Di Bernardo, Luiz (President)
Bresaola Júnior, Ruben
Mendes, Carlos Gomes da Nave
Title in Portuguese
Ruptura e recrescimento de flocos em água com substâncias húmicas aquáticas coagulada com sulfato de alumínio e cloreto férrico
Keywords in Portuguese
Floculação
Refloculação
Ruptura
Sedimentação
Substâncias húmicas aquáticas
Abstract in Portuguese
Por meio de ensaios em reatores estáticos (em equipamento de jarteste) foram estudados os efeitos da ruptura e da refloculação na sedimentação dos flocos, para diferentes velocidades de sedimentação. A água de estudo foi preparada com substâncias húmicas aquáticas (SHA) extraídas de água coletada do rio Itapanhaú - Bertioga/SP, resultando cor verdadeira de 100 uH, e coagulada com sulfato de alumínio e cloreto férrico. Para os dois coagulantes, foram realizadas as etapas de coagulação, mistura rápida, floculação, ruptura (G=50, 100 e 150/s) e refloculação (G=10 e 20/s). Na sedimentação sem a ocorrência de ruptura o cloreto férrico teve um desempenho superior ao sulfato de alumínio, principalmente nas velocidades de sedimentação mais altas. Isso se deve ao fato da floculação da água coagulada com o cloreto férrico ter gerado flocos de tamanho muito superior aos flocos gerados com o sulfato de alumínio. A ruptura, em poucos segundos, prejudicou a remoção dos flocos por sedimentação. Quanto maior o gradiente de velocidade na ruptura, maiores foram os valores da cor aparente remanescente, mesmo após a refloculação. A refloculação, mesmo nos primeiros minutos, diminuiu a cor aparente remanescente se comparada a logo após a ruptura. O menor gradiente de velocidade durante a refloculação testado (10/s) apresentou menores valores da cor aparente remanescente. Tanto na água coagulada com o sulfato de alumínio quanto na coagulada com o cloreto férrico a refloculação se comportou de modo semelhante, havendo recuperação na eficiência de remoção de cor sem, porém, atingir os resultados obtidos antes da ruptura.
Title in English
Breakage and regrowth of flocs in water with aquatic humic substances coagulated with aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride
Keywords in English
Aquatic humic substances
Flocculation
Flock break up
Reflocculation
Settling
Abstract in English
By using the jar test equipment, the effects of breakage and reflocullation on the efficiency of floc sedimentation were studied, using different settling velocities. Water of study was prepared with aquatic humic substances (AHS) extracted from the Itapanhaú river (Bertioga, SP, Brazil), resulting a true color of 100 uH. Coagulation was performed by using aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride. For both coagulants, coagulation, flocculation, breakage (G=50, 100 and 150/s) and reflocculation (G=10 and 20/s) tests were carried out. In the sedimentation without the floc breakage occurrence the ferric chloride had a superior performance to aluminum sulphate, mainly in higher settling velocities. This occurred because of flocculation of the ferric chloride coagulated water have generated higher size flocs than that generated with aluminum sulphate. The breakage of flocs, in few seconds, hindered the settling removal. The higher the average shear rate in the break-up, the higher result the residual turbidity even after the reflocculation. The reflocculation, even in the first minutes, decreased the apparent color if compared to the results just after the break-up and sedimentation. The lower average share rate used during the reflocculation (10/s) resulted lower values of the remaining apparent color. During the flocculation, the aluminum sulphate coagulated water as well as in the ferric chloride coagulated water held in similar way, recovering the efficiency of removal of color without, however, reach the results gotten before the breakage.
 
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CONSTANTINO.pdf (19.74 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2008-11-20
 
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