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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.18.2001.tde-13092001-091113
Document
Author
Full name
João de Mendonça Naime
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2001
Supervisor
Committee
Crestana, Silvio (President)
Chaudhry, Fazal Hussain
Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu
Reichardt, Klaus
Silva, Alvaro Macedo da
Title in Portuguese
Um novo método para estudos dinâmicos, in situ, da infiltração da água na região não-saturada do solo.
Keywords in Portuguese
agricultura
infiltração
meio-ambiente
plantio direto
solo
tomografia
Abstract in Portuguese
A agricultura é a atividade humana que mais afeta o meio ambiente. Imensas quantidades de insumos agrícolas são aplicados sobre o solo e grande parte destes degrada os recursos hídricos. Para uma investigação adequada do efeito destes insumos, estudam-se as propriedades hidráulicas do solo, que influem no transporte de solutos neste meio. Medir tais propriedades e modelar os parâmetros correlatos são tarefas extremamente complexas, devido ao tempo requerido, dinheiro, instrumentação e escala. As metodologias convencionais inferem as propriedades hidráulicas em amostras que estão em equilíbrio, através de técnicas invasivas e sob restrições especiais. Esta tese contribui com a ciência do ambiente, via ciência do solo, propondo um novo método de estudo da infiltração da água na região não-saturada do solo, utilizando a tomografia computadorizada (TC). O tomógrafo foi aqui desenvolvido e construído. A TC, neste trabalho, mediu a umidade (teta) durante o fluxo não-saturado e, através da solução numérica da equação de Richards e do modelo de Rossi-Nimmo, obtiveram-se a curva de retenção, a sortividade, k(teta) e a difusividade D(teta). Resultados qualitativos, como imagens 2D e 3D, e resultados quantitativos demonstraram a boa correlação do método proposto com o método tradicional de medida da curva de retenção. Amostras de solo estrurado foram analisadas em laboratório e em campo.
Title in English
A new method for dynamic studies, in situ, of water infiltration in the unsaturated zone of soil.
Keywords in English
agriculture
conservation tillage
environment
infiltration
soil
tomography
Abstract in English
Agriculture is the human activity that most affects the environment. Huge amounts of chemicals are applied on the soil. Pesticides percolation and runoff degrades water resources. Thus, soil hydraulic properties must be known due to their influence on solute transport. The measurement of these properties and the modelling of related parameters are often difficult, if not impossible, due to the involved time, money, instrumentation, and scale. Traditional methodologies infer hydraulic properties in samples that are in equilibrium, through invasive techniques and under some special constraints. This thesis contributes with environmental science, via soil science, as it proposes a new method to study the infiltration in the unsaturated zone of soil, by means of CT. The scanner was developed and constructed in this work. The proposed methodology uses profiling CT to measure the water content (theta) during the water flow, and by means of numerical solution of Richards equation and Rossi-Nimmo model water retention, sorptivity, hydraulic conductivity k(theta), and diffusivity D(theta) are obtained. Qualitative results, as 2D and 3D images, are presented and the quantitative results of water retention show good correlation of the proposed method with the conventional tensiometers method. Structured soil column samples are analyzed in the field and in laboratory.
 
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TeseCompleta.pdf (1.50 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2001-10-26
 
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