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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.2.2011.tde-02052012-154402
Document
Author
Full name
Julio Cesar Lazzarini Lemos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Marchi, Eduardo Cesar Silveira Vita (President)
Canela, Kelly Cristina
Moraes, Bernardo Bissoto Queiroz de
Rodrigues, Darcio Roberto Martins
Seelaender, Airton Lisle Cerqueira Leite
Title in Portuguese
A propriedade fundiária arcaica: nova interpretação da regra do usus auctoritas fundi  da Lei das XII tábuas
Keywords in Portuguese
Direito romano
Evicção
Propriedade territorial
Abstract in Portuguese
A chamada regra do usus auctoritas, presente na Lei das XII tábuas, é apontada, desde Cujácio (séc. XVI), e daí em diante por muitos juristas, como sendo uma antiga norma sobre a garantia do vendedor por meio de negócio formal, mancipatio em caso de evicção; o próprio sentido do vocábulo auctoritas seria «garantia», ou mesmo «dever de prestar garantia», neste caso particular inseparável da mancipatio. Mas o fragmento que traz essa regra USUS AUCTORITAS FUNDI BIENNIUM EST[O] nos foi transmitido por Cícero e (embora de forma já interpretada) Gaio; e estes a consideram uma espécie de antiga norma a respeito do usucapião (inicialmente apenas de imóveis). Outros juristas antigos e contemporâneos seguiram, em parte, essa interpretação original. O trabalho pretende trazer novos argumentos em favor dessa exegese natural de Cícero e Gaio no sentido de que a dita regra versa sobre usucapião, mais especificamente sobre uma sua forma arcaica e bastante peculiar. Investiga-se o surgimento da propriedade imobiliária em Roma e suas peculiaridades: o sistema augural, quase religioso, de limitação do solo destinado, no início, a todo cidadão romano, conferido por meio de atos de adsignatio (concessão) pelo «estado» em formação, que detinha a auctoritas ou poder; a passagem da soberania das gentes pré-romanas aos Quirites; a gradual privatização a atribuição dessa auctoritas coletiva e diretamente quiritária ao proprietário dessas parcelas de terra e a fragmentação do solo pelo direito privado regulado pela Lei das XII tábuas, que confere autonomia (a auctoritas ou título) aos indíviduos e suas famílias. Acrescenta-se uma breve análise lógica da regra e uma tentativa de a inserir no esquema geral do usucapião moderno.
Title in English
Archaic land ownership: new reading of the usus auctoritas rule of the twelve tables.
Keywords in English
Eviction
Land ownership
Roman law
Twelve tables
Usucaption
Usus auctoritas
Abstract in English
The usus auctoritas rule from the Twelve Tables was conceived by Jacques Cujas (16th century AD), and many authors thereafter, as an ancient norm that established a warranty against eviction granted by the seller when transferring the ownership of the thing to the buyer through the performance of mancipatio. According to this view, the very word auctoritas is taken to mean warranty, or else to imply an obligation to give warranty, and is intrinsically associated with mancipatio. But the fragment of the sources that state this rule USUS AUCTORITAS FUNDI BIENNIUM EST[O] were brough to us by Cicero and Gaius (the latter in the form of an interpretation of the norm), and both consider it to be an ancient Roman disposition that originally dealt with usucaption of immovable property only. To a certain extent, various ancient and modern jurists accept the latter interpretation. The object of this thesis is to provide new arguments to support the more natural interpretation adopted by Cicero and Gaius, i.e., that the rule in question deals specifically with an archaic and peculiar form of usucapio. The present work analyzes the emergence of private ownership of immovable property in Rome and its peculiarities: the quasi-religious augural system of land apportionment adopted by the fledging Roman state to assign a lot of land to every Roman citizen through the performance of acts of adsignatio (allotment); the sovereignty transferred by the pre-Roman gentes to the Quirites; the process by which land plots were gradually privatized and landowners acquired this once collective and quiritarian auctoritas, and the resulting land apportionment caused by the application of rules of private law based on the Twelve Tables conferring autonomy (auctoritas or title) to individuals and their families. In the final lines, an attempt is made to provide a logical analysis of the rule and to place it within the general conceptual framework of modern usucaption.
 
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tese_versao_final.pdf (2.16 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2012-05-04
 
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