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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.21.2014.tde-30032015-150240
Document
Author
Full name
Flávia Cabral Pereira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Turra, Alexander (President)
Montes, Isabel Montoya
Polette, Marcus
Title in Portuguese
Microplásticos no ambiente marinho: mapeamento de fontes e identificação de mecanismos de gestão para minimização da perda de pellets plásticos
Keywords in Portuguese
pellets plásticos
gestão de resíduos sólidos
lixo marinho
microplástico
poluição marinha
resinas termoplásticas
Abstract in Portuguese
Atualmente, a poluição marinha por microplásticos é uma grande preocupação ambiental, considerando principalmente a capacidade de dispersão e resistência à degradação que estes materiais possuem. A matéria prima plástica é normalmente comercializada na forma de "pellets", grânulos com cerca de 5 mm de diâmetro, que são encontrados em ambientes marinhos e costeiros de todo mundo, inclusive do Brasil. Estes podem ser perdidos nas etapas pré-consumo da cadeia produtiva dos plásticos e chegar direta ou indiretamente ao mar. Embora possam causar impactos ambientais e, eventualmente à saúde humana, há poucos registros formais sobre suas fontes. Assim, o presente projeto configura-se como um estudo para o entendimento da origem e de possíveis soluções para esta questão, a medida em que objetiva mapear e entender os diferentes processos de perda destes microplásticos para o meio ambiente, visando o desenvolvimento de orientações capazes de levar à redução desta perda. As conclusões apontam que as soluções para o problema passam por uma articulação multissetorial e definição de diretrizes para reduzir a perda adequadas à realidade brasileira. Estas diretrizes devem ser implementadas por meio de políticas públicas e instrumentos de comando e controle, que preferencialmente devem estar associados a mecanismos de regulação de mercado. Para efetivação destas políticas torna-se necessário ainda um enquadramento dos pellets como poluentes.
Title in English
Microplastic on the marine environment: sources and management to minimize the loss of plastic pellets
Keywords in English
marine debris
marine pollution
microplastic
plastic pellets
solid waste management
thermoplastic resins
Abstract in English
Currently, the plastic and microplastic marine pollution is a major environmental concern considering the difficulty in dealing with the dispersal capacity and resistance to degradation of these materials. The plastic material is usually marketed as plastic pellets, granules of about 5 mm of diameter, which are found in marine and coastal environments worldwide, including in Brazil. Possibly due to losses on the pre-consumer stages of production - on pellets producers, transporters and/or processors - arriving directly to the sea or indirectly by rivers and urban run-off. Although they can cause impacts to environment and, eventually, to human health, there are few formal records of its occurrence and its sources, essential information for managing this issue. Thus, this project is configured as a strategic study for understanding the origin and possible solutions for this issue. The main objective is to map and understand the different processes of these microplastics loss to the environment, aiming the development of guidelines to reduce this loss. The results indicate that the solutions to the problem undergo a multi-sectoral articulation and definition of appropriate guidelines to reduce the loss in the Brazilian reality. These guidelines should be implemented through public policies and instruments of command and control, which should preferably be associated with mechanisms of market regulation. In order to these changes take effect it is needed a clear framing of lost plastic pellets as pollutants.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-03-30
 
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