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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.21.2014.tde-21012015-090549
Document
Author
Full name
Marcos Henrique Maruch Tonelli
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Wainer, Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy (President)
Camargo, Ricardo de
Mata, Mauricio Magalhaes
Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi
Souza, Ronald Buss de
Title in Portuguese
Investigação numérica das massas de água do Mar de Ross usando o Regional Ocean Modeling System - ROMS
Keywords in Portuguese
Massas de água
Oceano Austral
Plataforma de gelo/gelo marinho
ROMS
Abstract in Portuguese
A formação de águas profundas na Antártica afeta diretamente o clima global, uma vez que este processo conecta os ramos superior e inferior da circulação termohalina global (MOC). Avaliar os impactos das mudanças climáticas nestes processos é importante para compreensão do transporte global de calor pelos oceanos e para realização de projeções climáticas. Aplicando a forçante interanual Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference (CORE), foi realizada uma simulação de 60 anos (1948-2007) utilizando o ROMS com módulos de gelo marinho e plataforma de gelo ativos. Uma rodada preliminar de 100 anos foi realizada com forçante do ano normal CORE, para gerar campos estáveis de inicialização da rodada interanual. Para ambos os experimentos adotou-se uma grade circumpolar periódica com resolução variável, alcançando cerca de 5 km na borda sul. Para investigar as massas de água foi aplicada a Análise Multiparamétrica Ótima - OMP. As principais massas de água do Mar de Ross foram identificadas: Água de Superfície Antártica (AASW), Água Circumpolar Profunda (CDW), Água de Fundo Antártica (AABW) e Água de Plataforma (SW), posteriormente separadas em Água da Plataforma de Gelo (ISW) e Água de Plataforma de Alta Salinidade (HSSW). Os resultados são consistentes com observações prévias (Bergamasco, 2002; Orsi & Wiederwohl, 2009; Budillon, 2011). A simulação interanual sugere que o Oceano Austral vem sofrendo um processo de aquecimento e diminuição de salinidade. Houve um aumento do calor advectado pela CDW e uma diminuição da salinidade das águas de plataforma e da AABW, consistente com as observações de Johnson & Doney (2006). A capacidade do modelo regional ROMS de reproduzir as águas de plataforma ISW, HSSW e a AABW é uma importante contribuição para estudos climáticos, visto que os modelos globais não conseguem representar tais processos. A inclusão de parametrizações explícitas dos processos de gelo marinho e plataforma de gelo capacita o ROMS para reproduzir os processos associados a criosfera, possibilitando a obtenção de projeções mais realísticas.
Title in English
Numerical Investigation of the Ross Sea water masses using the Regional Ocean Modeling System - ROMS
Keywords in English
ROMS
sea ice/ice shelf
Southern Ocean
Water Masses
Abstract in English
Dense water formation around Antarctica is recognized as a significant process that significantly impacts the global climate, since that's where the linkage between the upper and lower limbs of Global Thermohaline Circulation takes place. Assessing whether these processes may be affected by rapid climate changes and all the eventual feedbacks is crucial to fully understand the ocean heat transport and to provide quality future climate projections. Applying the Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference (CORE) interannual forcing we have run a 50-year simulation (1948-2007) using ROMS with a new sea ice/ice shelf thermodynamics module. Another 100-year simulation forced with CORE normal year was previously run to provide stable starting fields. The normal year consists of single annual cycle of all the data that are representative of climatological conditions over decades and can be applied repeatedly for as many years of model integration as necessary. The 60-year forcing has interannually varying data from 1948 to 2007, which allows validation of model output with ocean observations. Both experiments employed a periodic circumpolar variable resolution grid reaching less than 5 km at the southern border. By applying the OMP water masses separating scheme, we were able to identify the main Ross Sea water masses: Antarctic Surface Water (AASW), Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and Shelf Water (SW), further separated into Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). Results are consistent with previous observational studies (Bergamasco, 2002; Orsi & Wiederwohl, 2009; Budillon, 2011). The interannual simulation indicates that the Southern Ocean is becoming warmer and less salty. The CDW poleward heat transport increased while shelf waters salinity as well as the AABW salinity decreased during the simulation period, consistent with Johnson & Doney (2006), who have reported the export of less dense AABW. ROMS capability to represent ISW, HSSW and AABW is an important contribution to climate studies, since IPCC class models seem unable to provide reliable representations of such important processes, which may lead to projections of more realistic scenarios. This is significantly improved in this study by including more explicit sea ice/ice shelf parameretization. ROMS is able to reproduce cryosphere-linked mechanisms of dense water formation around Antarctica.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-01-23
 
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