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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2014.tde-09012015-111112
Document
Author
Full name
Milena Cristina de Paula
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Andrade, Denise de (President)
Haas, Vanderlei José
Watanabe, Evandro
Title in Portuguese
Seguimento retrospectivo da sensibilidade de isolados clínicos aos antibióticos utilizados em um hospital terciário brasileiro de 2007 a 2012
Keywords in Portuguese
Infecção hospitalar
Resistência microbiana a medicamentos
Testes de sensibilidade microbiana
Abstract in Portuguese
A resistência bacteriana emergiu como importante problema de saúde pública no mundo. Nesta pesquisa, a distribuição das espécies e a evolução da sensibilidade aos antibióticos entre isolados clínicos obtidos em um hospital terciário foram analisadas no período de 2007 a 2012. As bactérias isoladas foram identificadas por análises bioquímicas convencionais. Segundo as recomendações do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) compatíveis ao ano do processamento microbiológico, o perfil de sensibilidade foi determinado pelo método de disco difusão, entretanto para a sensibilidade a vancomicina utilizou-se a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). Durante o período da pesquisa totalizou-se 4.464 resultados de culturas distribuídos em 2007 (865), 2008 (981), 2009 (485), 2010 (539), 2011 (704) e 2012 (890). Com relação aos cocos Gram-positivos e as enterobactérias, Staphylococcus aureus e Eschericia coli foram as bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas, respectivamente. Dos antibióticos da classe dos beta-lactâmicos, piperacilina + tazobactam e aztreonam mostraram os melhores resultados de atividade antibacteriana. Todas as cepas isoladas de enterobactérias foram sensíveis aos carbapenêmicos. As cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram mais sensíveis ao imipenem do que ao meropenen, no entanto a redução dos perfis de sensibilidade foi evidenciada para ambos os antibióticos: imipenem (69,6% para 41,7%) e meropenem (63,3% para 25,0%). Todas Burkloderoderia cepacea e Acinetobacter baumanii demonstraram resistência ao meropenem, entretanto as cepas de Acinetobacter iuwoffi foram sensíveis aos carbapenêmicos. Aumentos semelhantes nos perfis de sensibilidade das cepas de Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Klebsiella oxytoca (70% para 86,7%) foram observados para ciprofloxacina e levofloxacina. Da classe dos aminoglicosídeos, a amicacina mostrou melhor atividade antibacteriana do que a gentamicina. Nas amostras analisadas deste hospital não houve ocorrência de Enterococcus spp. resistente a vancomicina (VRE). Ainda, todas as cepas de cocos Gram-positivos foram sensíveis a vancomicina e teicoplamina. No geral os antibióticos apresentaram resultados preocupantes, uma vez que para as bactérias reconhecidas nos cenários das infecções hospitalares nenhuma foi sensível 100% a todas as classes de antibióticos. A situação da sensibilidade microbiana aos antibióticos é caótica tendo cada vez mais limitada a sua utilização na terapêutica
Title in English
Retrospective follow-up of the sensitivity of clinical isolates to antibiotics used in a Brazilian tertiary hospital in the period from 2007 to 2012
Keywords in English
Cross infection
Drug resistance
Microbial
Microbial sensitivity tests
Abstract in English
Bacterial resistance has emerged as an important public health problem in the world. In this study, the distribution of species and the evolution of antibiotic susceptibility among clinical isolates in a tertiary hospital were analyzed in the period from 2007 to 2012. Bacterial isolates were identified by conventional biochemical analyzes. According to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) supported a year of microbiological processing, the sensitivity was determined by the disk diffusion method, however for sensitivity to vancomycin was used the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). During the research period, 4,464 culture results were obtained and distributed in 2007 (865), 2008 (981), 2009 (485), 2010 (539), 2011 (704) and 2012 (890). With respect to Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most frequently isolated bacteria, respectively. From beta-lactams class, piperacillin + tazobactam and aztreonam showed the best results of antibacterial activity. All isolated strains of Enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to carbapenems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were more sensitive to imipenem than the meropenen, however reducing the sensitivity profile was observed for both antibiotics imipenem (69.6% to 41.7%) and meropenem (63.3% for 25.0%). All Burkloderoderia cepacia and Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to meropenem, however Acinetobacter iuwoffi strains were susceptible to carbapenems. Similar increases in the susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca strains (70% to 86.7%) were observed for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. From aminoglycosides class, amikacin showed better antibacterial activity than gentamicin. In the samples analyzed in this hospital there was no occurrence of Enterococcus spp. resistant to vancomycin (VRE). Furthermore, all strains of Gram-positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Overall antibiotics showed worrying results, since none was recognized for bacteria in the nosocomial infection scenarios 100% sensitive to all classes of antibiotics. The situation of microbial sensitivity to antibiotics is becoming chaotic having limited their use in therapy
 
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Publishing Date
2015-02-20
 
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