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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2010.tde-09032010-163258
Document
Author
Full name
Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza (President)
Santos, Manoel Antonio dos
Zanetti, Maria Lucia
Title in Portuguese
A competência de pessoas com diabetes mellitus para o autocuidado em um programa educativo multiprofissional
Keywords in Portuguese
Autocuidado
Diabetes Mellitus
Educação em Saúde
Enfermagem
Abstract in Portuguese
Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, prospectivo e comparativo, do tipo antes e depois, abordagem quantitativa. Objetivo geral: comparar a competência de pessoas com diabetes mellitus (DM) para o autocuidado antes e após a participação em um programa educativo multiprofissional. O estudo foi realizado no Centro de Pesquisa e Extensão Universitária do interior paulista com 43 pessoas com DM. A coleta de dados ocorreu em março 2009, Tempo 1 (T1), a junho 2009, Tempo 2 (T2), através de entrevista semi-estruturada, norteada por dois instrumentos de coleta de dados, incluindo a "Escala para Identificação da Competência do portador de DM para o Autocuidado". Na análise dos dados utilizou-se o programa SPSS 15.0 onde foi proposto o modelo de efeitos mistos, com distribuição normal, média 0 e variância s2. O nível de significância estatístico adotado foi de 5% (p<0.05). Das 43 (100%) pessoas entrevistadas, 67.4% foram do sexo feminino, 86.0% procedente de Ribeirão Preto, 83.7% brancas, 65.2% casadas, 46.5% aposentadas, 60.5% católicas, 41.9% viviam com até 2 pessoas, 25.6% tinham até o primeiro grau incompleto, 44.1% possuíam renda familiar entre 3 à 4 salários mínimos, e 32.6% encontravam-se na faixa etária entre 60 à 69 anos. Em relação aos parâmetros clínicos: 97.7% tinham o DM tipo 2, 46.5% com tempo de diagnóstico [ 5 anos, 79.0% declararam que não fumam, 88.3% que não ingerem bebida alcoólica; 51.2% que não seguem dieta; 72.0% que não realizam atividade física, 76.7% utilizam somente antidiabético oral, 76.8% tinham hipertensão arterial e 23.3% retinopatia. Com relação à Pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e Pressão arterial diastólica (PAD), a média foi de 130 mmHg ± 13.58 e 81 mmHg ± 10.47 no T1, e 123 mmHg ± 14.26 e 76 mmHg ± 8.90 no T2. Na glicemia capilar pósprandial, a média foi de 181 mg/dL ± 81.74 no T1 e 157 mg/dL ± 64.54 no T2. Para o peso e IMC, a média foi 77.7 kg ± 16.70 e 30.2 kg/m2 ± 5.57 no T1, e, 76.1 kg ± 17.29 e 29.4 kg/m2 ± 5.66 no T2. Quanto a competência física para o autocuidado, no T1 a média foi de 15.07 ± 1.01 e no T2 foi 18.10 ± 1.43. Na competência cognitiva para o autocuidado, no T1 a média foi de 21.35 ± 4.28 e no T2 foi de 33.26 ± 3.68. Na competência emocional e motivacional para o autocuidado, a média foi de 34.51 ± 4.50 no T1 e 37.98 ± 3.80 no T2. Na análise estatística, as diferenças entre as médias do T1 em comparação ao T2 foram estatisticamente significantes na PAS (p=0.03), PAD (p=0.01), competência cognitiva (p<0.01) e competência emocional e motivacional (p<0.01). Conclui-se que a participação de pessoas com DM em um programa educativo multidisciplinar favorece a melhora da competência para o autocuidado, mesmo em curto período obteve-se mudanças significativas podendo ser uma ferramenta valiosa para o alcance dos benefícios esperados.
Title in English
The competence of patients with diabetes mellitus for self care in a multiprofissional educational program.
Keywords in English
Diabetes Mellitus
Health education.
Nursing
Self Care
Abstract in English
This descriptive, prospective, quantitative and comparative study, with before and after design. Main objective: compare the competence of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) for self care before and after their participation in a multiprofissional educational program. The study was carried out in the Research and Community Service Center in the interior of the state of São Paulo, with 43 patients with DM. The data collection was carried out between March 2009, Period 1 (T1), and June 2009, Period 2 (T2), through semi-structured interview, guided by two instruments, including the "Scale to identify DM patients' competence for Self Care". The SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis, with mixed effects model, normal distribution, average 0 and variance s2. The statistical level of significance adopted was 5% (p<0.05). Of the 43 (100%) patients interviewed, 67.4% were female, 86.0% from the city of Ribeirão Preto, 83.7% white, 65.2% married, 46.5% retired, 60.5% catholic, 41.9% lived with up to 2 people, 25.6% had con completed secondary education, 44.1% had monthly family income between 3 and 4 minimum wages, and 32.6% were aged between 60 and 69 years. With regard to the clinical parameters: 97.7% had type 2 DM, 46.5% had been diagnosed for [ 5 years, 79.0% declared not to smoke, 88.3% reported not drinking alcoholic drinks; 51.2% not following any diet; 72.0% not performing any physical activity, 76.7% use only oral antidiabetic medications, 76.8% has high blood pressure and 23.3% retinopathy. Regarding the Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the average was 130 mmHg ± 13.58 and 81 mmHg ± 10.47 at T1, and 123 mmHg ± 14.26 and 76 mmHg ± 8.90 at T2. For postprandial capillary glucose, the average was 181 mg/dL ± 81.74 at T1 and 157 mg/dL ± 64.54 at T2. For weight and BMI (body mass index), the average was 77.7 kg ± 16.70 and 30.2 kg/m2 ± 5.57 at T1, and, 76.1 kg ± 17.29 and 29.4 kg/m2 ± 5.66 at T2. Regarding the physical competence for self care, at T1 the average was 15.07 ± 1.01, and at T2 it was 18.10 ± 1.43. In the cognitive competence for self care, at T1 the average was 21.35 ± 4.28, and at T2, it was 33.26 ± 3.68. In the emotional and motivational competence for self care, the average was 34.51 ± 4.50 at T1 37.98 ± 3.80 at T2. In the statistical analysis the differences between the averages at T1 in comparison to T2 were statistically significant for SBP (p=0.03), DBP (p=0.01), cognitive competence (p<0.01) and emotional and motivational competence (p<0.01). It was concluded that the participation of patients with DM in a multiprofissional educational program favors the improvement of the competence for self care, since even in a short period of time significant changes were observed, it can be an important tool to reach the expected benefits.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-03-31
 
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