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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2014.tde-20052014-190528
Document
Author
Full name
Natalia Minto Godinho Benedetti
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Marques, Sueli (President)
Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani de
Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira
Title in Portuguese
Capacidade para o Autocuidado de Idosos em Atendimento Ambulatorial
Keywords in Portuguese
Autocuidado
Doenças Crônicas
Idoso
Terapia Ocupacional
Abstract in Portuguese
Com o processo de transição demográfica vem ocorrendo o crescimento da população idosa e, consequentemente, mudanças no perfil epidemiológico, caracterizado pela alta prevalência das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, que podem comprometer o desempenho para as atividades cotidianas, especialmente, a capacidade para o autocuidado, gerando prejuízos para a autonomia e dependência, fatores que refletem negativamente em todos os âmbitos da vida do idoso. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram: caracterizar os idosos em atendimento ambulatorial, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, arranjo e suporte familiar; identificar a capacidade cognitiva; identificar a capacidade para o autocuidado e verificar a associação entre a capacidade para o autocuidado e as variáveis sociodemograficas e cognição. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal e exploratório. Realizado com idosos atendidos em dois Ambulatórios de Geriatria, de um Hospital Geral Terciário, do interior paulista. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se o Mini Exame do estado Mental, a Classificação de Idosos quanto a Capacidade para o Autocuidado e uma ficha de dados complementares. Participaram do estudo 117 idosos; média de idade 79,8 anos; 75,2% eram mulheres; 54,7% sabiam ler/escrever informalmente ou possuía o primário incompleto; 77,8% eram aposentados e 63,2% procedentes da cidade de Ribeirão Preto. Quanto ao arranjo familiar e potencial de rede de suporte 13,7% viviam com cônjuge/filhos(as) e 12,8% viviam sozinhos, 10,3% com o cônjuge e 8,5% com filhos(as)/netos(as)/genro/nora; 26,5% relacionavam-se com os filhos de uma a duas vezes por semana e 25,6% quase todos os dias. Em caso de doença 93,1% referiram possuir alguém que cuide, sendo que 71,8% indicaram as filhas; o número médio de doenças foi de 4,4; as mais prevalentes foram, hipertensão arterial (74,3%), dislipidemias (37,6%), osteoporose (35,9%), demências (34,2%) e diabetes mellitus (27,3%). Quanto a avaliação cognitiva, 79,5% possuíam déficit cognitivo. No que se refere ao autocuidado, 71,1% dos idosos do ambulatório I apresentaram dificuldades tanto para o desempenho das atividades básicas da vida diária (ABVDs) quanto para as atividades instrumentais da vida diária (AIVDs), no entanto, verificou-se maior necessidade de ajuda para a realização das AIVDs para os idosos de ambos os ambulatórios estudados. As ABVDs que os idosos mais requeriam ajuda foram, banho (45,3%), cuidados com pele/cabelos/unhas/dentes/face (47,0%) e vestuário (47,0%); as atividades mais compensadas com estratégias para minimizar as dificuldades foram, continência (32,5%) e locomoção (37,6%). Para as AIVDs, 55,5% necessitavam de ajuda para tomar medicamentos e 50,4% nas tarefas domésticas; somente 9,4% compensam a atividade de tomar medicação, ou seja, os participantes adotaram mais práticas de compensação para as ABVDs do que para as AIVDs. Conhecer a capacidade de autocuidado dos idosos possibilita aos profissionais de saúde, em especial ao terapeuta ocupacional, o planejamento de intervenções voltadas tanto para os idosos quanto para os cuidadores, com a finalidade de prevenir, melhorar ou recuperar práticas de autocuidado prejudicadas, otimizando a qualidade de vida de ambos
Title in English
Self-Care Ability of Elderly Patients in Outpatient Care
Keywords in English
Aged
Chronic Disease
Occupational Therapy
Self-care
Abstract in English
The demographic transition process has entailed the growth of the elderly population and, consequently, changes in the epidemiological profile, characterized by the high prevalence of non-transmissible chronic conditions that can compromise the performance of daily activities, especially the self-care ability, impairing the autonomy and dependence, which are factors that negatively influence all spheres of these people's lives. Hence, the objectives in this study were: to characterize the elderly people in outpatient care according to sociodemographic variables, family arrangement and support; to identify the cognitive ability; to identify the self-care ability and verify the association between the self-care ability and the sociodemographic and cognitive variables. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional and exploratory study was undertaken. The participants were elderly patients attended at two Geriatric outpatient clinics of a Tertiary General Hospital in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. To collect the data, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Self-Care Ability Classification of Elderly and a complementary data form were used. In total, 117 elderly participated, with a mean age of 79.8 years, 75.2% women; 54.7% were able to read/write informally or had not finished their primary education; 77.8% were retired and 63.2% came from the city of Ribeirão Preto. As to the family arrangement and potential support network, 13.7% lived with their partner/children and 12.8% alone, 10.3% with their partner and 8.5% with children/grandchildren/son-in-law/daughter-in-law; 26.5% interacted with their children once or twice per week and 25.6% almost every day. In case of illness, 93.1% indicated having a caregiver, 71.8% indicating their daughter; the mean number of illnesses was 4.4; the most prevalent conditions were arterial hypertension (74.3%), dyslipidemias (37.6%), osteoporosis (35.9%), dementias (34.2%) and diabetes mellitus (27.3%). In the cognitive assessment, 79.5% had a cognitive deficit. As regards self-care, 71.1% of the elderly at outpatient clinic I experienced difficulties to perform the basic activities of daily living (BADLs) as well as the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), although it was verified that the elderly at both outpatient clinics under study needed more help to perform the IADLs. The BADLs the elderly most needed help with were bathing (45.3%), care for skin/hair/nails/teeth/face (47.0%) and dressing (47.0%); the activities that were most compensated for through strategies to minimize the difficulties were continence (32.5%) and locomotion (37.6%). For the IADLs, 55.5% needed help with medication intake and 50.4% with housework; only 9.4% compensated for the medication intake, that is, the participants adopted more compensation practices for the BADLs than for the IADLs. Knowing the elderly patients' self-care ability allows health professionals, especially occupational therapists, to plan interventions focused on the elderly as well as their caregivers, with a view to preventing, improving or recovering impaired self-care practices, thus optimizing both groups' quality of life
 
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Publishing Date
2014-11-07
 
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