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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2004.tde-25082004-093623
Document
Author
Full name
Kelli Cristina Silva de Oliveira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2004
Supervisor
Committee
Zanetti, Maria Lucia (President)
Cesarino, Evandro José
Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti
Title in Portuguese
"Fatores de risco em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio em um hospital privado de Ribeirão Preto-SP"
Keywords in Portuguese
enfermagem
fatores de risco
infarto do miocárdio
Abstract in Portuguese
No Brasil, as doenças cardiovasculares constituem-se nas principais causas de mortalidade, sendo o infarto agudo do miocárdio a entidade nosológica mais freqüente dentre as doenças isquêmicas do coração. Os fatores de risco que predispõem as pessoas a essa doença estão relacionados a hábitos do estilo de vida e história familiar. Assim, esta investigação, de natureza descritiva, pretende identificar os fatores de risco relacionados ao meio ambiente, à biologia humana, estilo de vida, e sistema de saúde de pacientes internados em um hospital privado, até 48 horas após a ocorrência de infarto agudo do miocárdio, identificar o conhecimento quanto aos fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de novos problemas de saúde e verificar se algumas variáveis, relacionadas aos fatores de risco de pacientes infartados em hospital público e privado, são semelhantes. O referencial teórico foi o Modelo de Campo de Saúde que compõe elementos relacionados ao meio ambiente, biologia humana, estilo de vida e sistema de saúde. Foram entrevistados 31 pacientes internados, em um hospital privado de uma cidade do interior do Estado de São Paulo, no período de janeiro a julho de 2003, após assinatura do termo de consentimento informado. Os resultados revelam que, quanto ao meio ambiente, a maioria dos pacientes era alfabetizada, 11 (35,5%) tinha o primeiro grau completo, 10 (32,2%) eram aposentados e donas-de-casa, 24 (77,4%) trabalhavam em torno de 8 a 10 horas por dia e tinham somente um emprego, e a renda familiar mensal, para 19 (61,3%), encontrava-se na faixa de 5 a 15 ou mais salários-mínimos, 22 (70,9%) eram casados e 15 (48,3%) tinham três ou mais filhos, 21 (67,7%) eram procedentes de Ribeirão Preto e região e todos residiam em zona urbana. Em relação à biologia humana, 19 (61,3%) eram do sexo masculino, aproximadamente metade 17 (54,8%) encontrava-se na faixa etária de 40 a 59 anos, 18 (58,1%) encontravam-se com sobrepeso ou obesidade classes I e II. Quanto aos antecedentes familiares, os dados mais expressivos apontam que 23 (74,2%) apresentavam hipertensão arterial sistêmica, 15 (48,3%) diabetes melittus, 17 (54,8%) infarto agudo do miocárdio e 6 (19,3%) acidente vascular cerebral. Das mulheres entrevistadas, 7 (22,6%) faziam uso algum tipo de terapia de reposição hormonal. No tocante ao estilo de vida relacionado aos hábitos alimentares, 29 (93,6%) utilizavam frituras nas refeições, 14 (45,2%) ingeriam doces e refrigerantes diariamente e 13 (41,9%) tomavam três xícaras ou mais de café ao dia, 18 (58,1%) faziam uso de bebidas alcoólicas, 10 (32,2%) eram fumantes, 9 (29,0%) ex-fumantes e 18 (58,1%) sedentários. Quanto ao estresse, 12 (38,7%) sentiam-se estressados no local de trabalho e 19 (61,3%) dormiam menos que oito horas por noite. Em relação ao sistema de saúde, 16 (51,6%) conheciam o diagnóstico, 12 (38,7%) apresentaram dúvidas acerca da doença, 21 (67,7%) utilizavam os serviços de saúde oferecidos pelo plano de saúde e 17 (54,8%) realizavam tratamento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e diabetes melittus. Os dados revelam que os pacientes infartados estão expostos a hábitos autocriados que são passiveis de modificação havendo a necessidade de iniciar este processo educativo inclusive no período de internação hospitalar.
Title in English
Risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction in a Ribeirão Preto’s private hospital
Keywords in English
myocardial infarction
nursing
risk factors
Abstract in English
The cardiovascular diseases in Brazil, constitute nowadays death’s first cause and myocardial infarction is the most frequent nosological entity amonmg heart isquemical diseases. Among risk factors which predispose people committed by this disease are their life style’s and familiar history’s habits. This descriptive investigation intended to identify the risk factors related to the environment, human biology, life style and health systems of patients admitted in a private hospital, until 48 hours after the myocardial infarction; identify the knowledge’s blanket concerning to the risk factors related to new health problems’ development and verify if some variables are related to the risk factors which are similar to those of admitted patients in private and public hospitals. The theoretical referential used was the Health Model Field which constitutes the elements linked to the environment, human biology, life style an health system. We interviewed 31 internee patients in a private hospital in São Paulo’s interior, from January through July, 2003. Concerning to the environment 93,5% of the patients were literate; among them 11 (35,5%) had completed high school; related to their occupation 10 (32,2%) were retired and housewives; concerning to their working hours and job numbers, 24 (77,4%) work around 8 or 10 hours a day and have only one job; when referring to their familiar monthly income, 19 (61,3%) obtained from 5 to or more minimum salaries; 22 (70,9%) were married and 15 (48,3%) had three or more children; 21 (67,7%) were from Ribeirão Preto and its region and all of them lived in urban areas. When referring to the human biology, 19 (61,3%) were masculine and their ages varied between 40 and 59 years old; 18 (58,1%) were over weighted or fat, belonging to classes I and II; concerned to the familiar preceding, the most expressive data showed that 23 (74,2%) presented systemic arterial hypertension; 15 (48,3%) mellitus diabetes; 17 (54,8%) myocardial infarction and 6 (19,3%) cerebral vascular accident; 7 (22,6%) were feminine and were using hormones. Concerned to their life style, related to the feeding habits, 29 (93,6%) were accustomed to eat fried food; 14 (45,2%) used to eat sweeties and drink soft drinks daily; 13 (41,9%) used to drink 3 or more cups of coffee a day. When referring to the use of alcoholic drinks, 18 (58,1%) used to drink it; 10 (32,2%) were smokers and 9 (29,0%) were ex-smokers; 18 (58,1%) were sedentary. When referring to the stressing environment and sleeping patterns, 12 (38,7%) mention the work place and 19 (61,3%) sleep less than 8 hours a day. Concerning to the health system, 16 (51,6%) knew their diagnosis; 12 (38,7%) presented doubts about their diseases; 21 (67,7%) used the health services offered by their health insurance and 17 (54,8%) were under arterial hypertension and mellitus diabetes treatment. The data showed the patients who suffered by myocardial infarction are exposed to “selfcreated” habits, which may be modified and it is important to mention the necessity of raising educative programs including the patient’s permanence at the hospital.
 
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Publishing Date
2004-08-26
 
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