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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.22.2011.tde-28112011-155933
Document
Author
Full name
Danielle Monteiro Vilela Dias
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Nogueira, Maria Suely (President)
Cesarino, Evandro José
Hayashida, Miyeko
Title in Portuguese
Programa educativo no ensino de fatores de risco para hipertensão arterial entre estudantes do ensino médio de escolas públicas do interior paulista
Keywords in Portuguese
Ensino Médio
Estudantes
Fatores de risco cardiovasculares
Hipertensão
Programa educativo
Abstract in Portuguese
Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de intervenção quase experimental, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 154 estudantes do ensino médio de escolas públicas do interior paulista, realizado no período de agosto a dezembro de 2010, tendo por objetivos identificar entre os estudantes do ensino médio, valores de PA alterados, exposição aos fatores de risco para a doença hipertensiva e o conhecimento, por meio de jogos educativos, sobre os fatores de risco para a doença hipertensiva. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados três instrumentos: um relativo a dados sociedemográficos, da medida da pressão arterial (PA) e do estilo de vida; os planos de aulas para realização da atividade educativa e o jogo de cruzadas de Moreira (2007), para avaliar o conhecimento dos alunos pré e pós-intervenção com a atividade educativa. Os sujeitos possuíam idade entre 14 e 17 anos, 86 (55,8%) eram do sexo feminino, 100 (65%), brancos e 63 (40,9%) cursavam o 10° ano; 7 (4,5%) apresentaram valores de PA > percentil 95 e <= percentil 99, 3 (1,9%) apresentaram valores de PA > percentil 99; 35 (22,8%) apresentaram sobrepeso, destes, 5 (14,3%) apresentaram valores de PA alterados, 8 (5,2%) apresentaram obesidade, destes, 3 (37,5%) apresentaram valores de PA alterados; 45 apresentaram circunferência da cintura (CC) > percentil 75, destes, 6 (13,3%) estavam com valores de PA alterados. As principais comorbidades apresentadas relativas aos antecedentes familiares foram: Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS) (71,4%), Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio (IAM) (61,7%) e Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) (40,3%). Dos estudantes com valores de PA alterados, 8 (80%) apresentaram algum antecedente familiar para doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs). Quando questionados sobre o entedimento do que é pressão alta, 56 (36,4%) responderam corretamente e 41 (26,6%) sabiam indicar o tratamento da pressão alta. Quando questionados sobre a exposição aos fatores de risco para a HAS, 28 (18,2%) indicaram não praticar atividade de física, destes, 7 (24,9%) apresentaram valores de PA alterados, 15 (9,7%) eram fumantes, destes, 8 (53,3%) possuiam valores de PA alterados, 66 (42,9%) consumiam bebida alcoólica, sendo que, 4 (6,1%) apresentaram valores de PA alterados, 93 (60,4%) consideravam-se estressados, dos quais, 9 (9,7%) possuiam valores de PA altterados. Quando comparamos as questões do jogo de cruzadas no pré e pós- intervenção com a atividade educativa, identificamos que o conhecimento dos estudantes foi adquirido, pois apresentaram 32,5 % de acertos nas questões (pré-intervenção) e 76,2% de acertos nas questões (pós-intervenção). A aplicação do teste t Student, mostrou resultado p= 000, sendo estatisticamente significativo. Diante desses resultados permanece o deasafio de desenvolver programas educativos nas escolas como processo de ensino para que os estudantes adquiram conhecimento para buscar melhor qualidade de vida, pois é nesta faixa etária que se desenvolvem hábitos saudáveis.
Title in English
Educative program for teaching arterial hypertension risk factors among secondary-education students from the interior of São Paulo State
Keywords in English
Cardiovascular risk factors
Educative program
Hypertension
Secondary education
Students
Abstract in English
This quasi-experimental descriptive intervention study with a quantitative approach involved 154 secondary-education students from public schools in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. It was carried out between August and December 2010. The goals were to identify altered BP levels among the students, as well as exposure to risk factors for hypertensive disease and knowledge on the risk factors for hypertensive disease, using educative games. Three instruments were used for data collection: one addressing socio-demographic, blood pressure (BP) measurement and lifestyle data; lesson plans to accomplish the educative activity and Moreira' crossword game (2007) to assess the students' knowledge before and after the intervention and after the educative activity. Subjects were between 14 and 17 years old, 86 (55.8%) were female, 100 (65%) white and 63 (40.9%) were taking the 10th year; 7 (4.5%) displayed BP > 95th percentile and <= 99th percentile, 3 (1.9%) showed BP > 99th percentile; 35 (22.8%) presented overweight, 5 (14.3%) of whom with altered BP levels, 8 (5.2%) were obese, 3 (37.5%) of whom with altered BP levels; 45 presented waist circumference (WC) > 75th percentile, 6 (13.3%) of which with altered BP levels. The main comorbidities related to family antecedents were: systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) (71.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (61.7%) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (40.3%). Among students with altered BP levels, 8 (80%) presented some family antecedent for cardiovascular illnesses (CVIs). When asked about their understanding of high blood pressure, 56 (36.4%) answered correctly and 41 (26.6%) were able to indicate high BP treatment. When asked about exposure to risk factors for SAH, 28 (18.2%) indicated that they did not practice physical exercise, 7 (24.9%) of whom with altered BP levels; 15 (9.7%) were smokers, 8 (53.3%) of whom with altered BP levels; 66 (42.9%) consumed alcoholic beverages, 4 (6.1%) of whom with altered BP levels, and 93 (60.4%) considered they were stressed, 9 (9.7%) of whom with altered BP levels. The comparison of questions in the crossword game before and after the intervention with the educative activity showed that the students gained knowledge, with 32.5% (pre-intervention) and 76.2% of correct answers (post-intervention). The result of Student's t-test was p= 000, with statistical significance. In view of these results, the challenge remains to develop educative programs in schools as a teaching process for students to gain knowledge with a view to a better quality of life, as it is in this age range that healthy habits are developed.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-01-19
 
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