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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.22.2011.tde-18072011-112116
Document
Author
Full name
Thaíla Corrêa Castral
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan (President)
Antonini, Sonir Roberto Rauber
Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão
Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins
Warnock, Fay
Title in Portuguese
A relação entre fatores maternos e a resposta à dor e ao estresse do prematuro em posição canguru
Keywords in Portuguese
Ansiedade
Cuidado canguru
Depressão Pós-Parto
Dor
Enfermagem Neonatal
Estresse
Interação mãe-filho
Prematuro
Abstract in Portuguese
O canguru é efetivo no alívio da dor aguda em prematuros, porém pouco se sabe sobre o papel da mãe na regulação da dor e estresse neonatal. Tem-se como objetivo geral investigar a associação entre os fatores maternos (comportamento, estado emocional e humor e estresse) e a resposta à dor e ao estresse de prematuros submetidos à punção de calcâneo para exame de triagem neonatal em posição canguru. Trata-se de experimento não-controlado, realizado na unidade neonatal de um hospital universitário de Ribeirão Preto-SP. Participaram do estudo 42 mães e seus filhos prematuros, após obtenção de consentimento livre e esclarecido. Os dados foram coletados em três fases: basal - FP (10 minutos), procedimento - FP (coleta do exame) e recuperação - FR (10 minutos). Coletaram-se amostras de saliva da mãe e do prematuro antes e após o exame doloroso e da mãe à noite e ao despertar. Mensuraram-se as variáveis: mímica facial (Neonatal Facial Coding System - NFCS), sono e vigília, duração do choro e frequência cardíaca (FC) neonatal, comportamento materno e interação mãe-filho (Maternal Mood Infant Pain Behavior Coding System), estado emocional e de humor materno (Inventários de Depressão e de Ansiedade de Beck). Explorou-se a relação entre as variáveis maternas e neonatais (análise bivariada), a influência do estado emocional e humor materno nas variáveis neonatais (análises de variância com medidas repetidas) e quais variáveis explanatórias maternas interferem nas variáveis de resposta neonatais (regressão múltipla). O escore médio do NFCS, a porcentagem de duração do tempo de choro e a FC média não alteraram significativamente entre as fases da coleta, ao controlar-se a porcentagem de duração dos estados de sono e vigília basal. As concentrações médias de cortisol salivar neonatal e materno pós-punção em relação a pré-punção não diferiram estatisticamente (p=0,731; p=1,000, respectivamente). Encontrou-se associação entre o escore médio do NFCS na FP e a concentração de cortisol salivar pré-punção materno (r=0,32; p=0,040); a porcentagem tempo do choro na FP e a concentração de cortisol salivar pré-punção materno (r=-0,32; p=0,047); a FC neonatal na FP e as concentrações de cortisol salivar noturno (r=-0,49; p=0,002), pré-punção (r=-0,34; p=0,025) e pós-punção (r=-0,51; p=0,001) materna; a FC neonatal na FR e as concentrações de cortisol salivar noturno (r=-0,45; p=0,004), prépunção (r=-0,41; p=0,007) e pós-punção (r=-0,50; p=0,001), as concentrações de cortisol salivar pré-punção neonatal e noturno materno (r=0,39; p=0,016) e as concentrações do cortisol pós-punção neonatal e materno (r=0,34; p=0,027). A presença de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão e o comportamento maternos não influenciaram a resposta de dor e estresse do prematuro. A concentração do cortisol salivar materno pré-punção foi preditor da variância da concentração do cortisol salivar pós-punção do prematuro [coeficiente R2 ajustado=0,092; F(1,36)=4,764; p=0,036]; a concentração de cortisol salivar noturno materno, juntamente com a idade pós-natal do prematuro, explicaram a variância da FC neonatal [coeficiente R2 ajustado=0,282; F(2,35)=8,219; p=0,001]. Concluiu-se que a capacidade das mães participantes do estudo em regular o seu próprio estresse pode contribuir para a resposta de dor e estresse do prematuro. Outros estudos são necessários para fortalecer as evidências.
Title in English
The relation between maternal factors with preterm newborn pain and stress response while in maternal kangaroo care
Keywords in English
Anxiety
Kangaroo care
Mother-child relations
Neonatal Nursing
Pain
Postpartum depression
Preterm
Stress
Abstract in English
Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) effectively reduces acute pain and stress in the preterm, but very little is known about the maternal role during MKC. The main purpose of the present non-controlled intervention study was to examine relationships between maternal factors (caregiving behaviour, depression and anxiety and maternal own stress) and preterm infant pain and stress response during heel lance (HL) for routine neonatal blood screening while in MKC. The study was carried out in a neonatal unit at a university hospital in Ribeirao Preto- SP and involved 42 consenting mothers and their stable preterm infants. Maternal and infant data were collected during three study phases: Baseline (10 minutes - before HL), HL procedure (during blood collection) and Recovery (10 minutes - post HL). On the day of the infant's scheduled HL, maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected at baseline and 20 minutes post-HL. Two additional maternal salivary cortisol samples were collected (night and awakening). Continuous measures of infant heart rate (HR) were collected and maternal caregiving behaviour and infant pain behaviour (facial action, cry and infant state) were continuously videotaped during the three study phases. Within the following week of each infant's HL, the emotional state of study mothers was assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and the Maternal Mood Infant Pain Behaviour Coding System were used to code infant and maternal behaviour, second-by-second, from which time based measures of behaviour were generated. Relationships between maternal and neonatal measures were initially analyzed using bivariate analyses and RM-ANOVA was used to examine change in maternal and infant measures. Multiple regression analyses were then used to test which maternal variables predicted neonatal responses. No statistical significant differences in infant mean NFCS score, cry percentage duration and HR were observed across the study phases when baseline percentage duration of infant sleep-awake state was controlled. Also, maternal and neonatal salivary cortisol pre-HL and post-HL did not differ statistically (p=0.731; p=1.000, respectively). However, mean NFCS score and percentage duration of infant cry during the HL procedure were found to be associated with maternal pre-HL salivary cortisol level (r=0.32; p=0.040 and r=-0.32; p=0.047, respectively). Associations were also observed between neonatal HR duration and maternal nocturne (r=-0.49; p=0.002), pre-HL (r=-0.34; p=0.025) and post-HL (r=-0.51; p=0.001) salivary cortisol levels. Further, neonatal HR post HL procedure was related with nocturne (r=-0.45; p=0.004), pre-HL (r=-0.41; p=0.007) and post-HL (r=-0.50; p=0.001) maternal salivary cortisol. In this study, maternal scores of depression and anxiety and percentage of time spent expressing typical and typically depressed behaviour were not found to predict preterm pain and stress response. However, mother salivary cortisol level pre-HL predicted preterm salivary cortisol post-HL [adjusted R2=0.092; F(1,36)=4.764; p=0.036]; and maternal nocturne salivary cortisol together with gestational age predicted neonatal HR [adjusted R2=0.282; F(2,35)=8.219; p=0.001]. Study findings support the effectiveness of the maternal regulatory role in MKC but do suggest that the stress regulatory ability (as reflected by maternal cortisol levels) of the studies mothers may be predictive of alteration in pain and stress response in preterm offspring. Similar studies are needed to substantiate and to build on study findings.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-08-10
 
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