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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.22.2019.tde-22102019-205056
Document
Author
Full name
Maurícia Cristina de Lima
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Clapis, Maria José (President)
Borba, Kátia Pereira de
Corrêa, Adriana Katia
Perez, Ornella Padovani
Title in Portuguese
A prática reflexiva docente e a metodologia ativa no ensino superior em saúde
Keywords in Portuguese
Educação em saúde
Metodologias ativas
Prática reflexiva
Abstract in Portuguese
A presente tese defende que as metodologias ativas no ensino superior em saúde exercem influências para a construção da prática reflexiva do professor, beneficiando a formação de cidadão e de profissionais da saúde. O objetivo foi analisar o contexto da prática reflexiva, a partir da vivência dos professores que atuam com as metodologias ativas, no ensino superior em saúde. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa. Os dados foram construídos mediante fontes primária e secundária, de forma a ampliar a compreensão do objeto de estudo. Na fonte primária, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 professores, selecionados de forma intencional, com experiência docente acima de 1 ano com metodologia ativa, nos cursos de graduação em Enfermagem, Farmácia, Medicina e Nutrição de duas instituições de ensino superior (IES), no município de Foz do Iguaçu. Na fonte secundária, foram consultados os projetos pedagógicos dos cursos (PPCs), assim como os planos de ensino dos respectivos professores entrevistados. Os resultados das entrevistas foram avaliados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática, com a identificação de três temas: A trajetória do professor em saúde; A prática reflexiva e a metodologia ativa; O papel institucional. O cenário de estudo mostrou-se complexo e multidimensional, influenciado pela limitação de formação pedagógica, as condições de trabalho, as experiências profissionais e de vida que se refletem na prática docente e no processo de transição para a metodologia ativa. A construção da prática reflexiva se mostrou implícita em alguns professores, os quais parecem ter mudado paradigmas, o que fez rever o modo de pensar, agir, se relacionar e ressignificar a sua prática. Há, em outros professores, uma tendência do saber "escolar" que pode dificultar o desenvolvimento das estratégias ativas de ensino. A metodologia ativa foi descrita pela maioria dos entrevistados como um método de aprendizagem onde o aluno é protagonista e o professor, o mediador desse processo. Em relação aos PPCs, percebe-se tímida expressão dos professores sobre os saberes pedagógicos. As IESs buscam oferecer a formação docente, porém os docentes apontam a necessidade de trocar experiências com outras realidades que atuam com modelos educacionais similares. A sobrecarga de trabalho no planejamento docente, a carga horária alocada e a demanda de trabalho extraclasse foram fragilidades apontadas. Já as potencialidades observadas pelos docentes foram: alunos mais questionadores, críticos e reflexivos, durante as discussões de casos clínicos; atuando com maior integração no trabalho em equipe, autonomia e humanização em cenários reais. Embora ciente das limitações do estudo, espera-se oferecer elementos de reflexão para as IESs e professores, pois permitirá analisar lacunas, fragilidades e potencialidades, para a consolidação dessas propostas metodológicas inovadoras; bem como contribuir para o aprimoramento epistemológico da prática reflexiva, entendendo o conhecimento como inacabado e ilimitado
Title in English
Reflexive teaching practice and active methodology in health higher education
Keywords in English
Active methodologies
Health education
Reflective practice
Abstract in English
The present thesis advocates that active methodologies in college health education exert influences for the construction of the reflexive practice of the professor, benefiting the formation of citizens and health professionals. The objective was to analyze the context of reflexive practice based on the experience of professors whoseapproach was active methodologies in health education in higher education institutions. The present study is a qualitative approach. The data were constructed using primary and secondary sources, in order to broaden the understanding of the object of study. In the primary source, semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 intentionally selected professors.All of them had more than one year teaching experience using active methodology as their approach in the undergraduate courses of Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine and Nutrition of two higher education institutions (HEI) in the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. In the secondary source, the political educational projects (PEP) of the courses were consulted, as well as the teaching plans of the respective professors interviewed. The results of the interviews were evaluated through thematic content analysis, with the identification of three themes: The trajectory of the professor in health education; Reflective practice and active methodology; The institutional role. The study scenario was complex and multidimensional, influenced by the limitations of pedagogical training, working conditions, professional and life experiences that are reflected in the teaching practice and in the process of transition to the active methodology. The construction of reflective practice presented itself implicit in some professors, who seemed to have changed paradigms andreconsidered the ir own way of thinking, acting, relating and remeaning practice.Yet, there is, in other professors, a tendency for"scholarly" knowledge which may hinder the development of active teaching strategies. Active methodology was defined by most of the participants as a learning method in which the student is the leading figure and the educator, the facilitator of such process. Regarding PEPs, it is noticed the educators' sluggish expression when it comes to pedagogical knowledge. The HEIs seek to offer teacher training, nevertheless the teachers point out the need for exchanging experiences with other realities which work with similar educational models. The overload of work in teaching planning, giving lectures and teaching, besides the demand for extra class work were weaknesses highlighted. On the other hand, the capabilities observed by the participants were: more questioning, critical and thoughtful students during the discussions of clinical cases; working with greater integration in teamwork, autonomy and humanization in real scenarios. Despite the awarenessof the limitations of the study, it is hoped to provide elements of reflection to HEIs and professors, since it will allow educational agents to analyze gaps, weaknesses and capabilities, for the consolidation of these innovative methodological proposals; as well as contribute to the epistemological improvement of reflexive practice, understanding knowledge as undone and unlimited
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-04
 
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