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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.27.2015.tde-24112015-163738
Document
Author
Full name
Nicolau Bruno de Almeida Leonel
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Machado Junior, Rubens Luis Ribeiro (President)
Gervaiseau, Henri Pierre Arraes de Alencar
Fabbrini, Ricardo Nascimento
Matos, Olgaria Chain Feres
Morettin, Eduardo Victorio
Title in Portuguese
Percursos da formação de Chris Marker: cinema militante, dissidência e profanação
Keywords in Portuguese
Chris Marker
Cinema Experimental
Cinema militante
Cinema soviético
Documentário político
Vanguardas artísticas
Abstract in Portuguese
Chris Marker é um cineasta que realizou documentários políticos pouco convencionais ao longo de quase sessenta anos de carreira. Depois de uma militância ativa e inserida no coração de acontecimentos cruciais na França e na Europa, e de uma carreira literária como editor, ensaísta e romancista, natural que seus filmes, vistos isoladamente, provoquem as mais equivocadas interpretações. Esta pesquisa procura, através de um levantamento de seus filmes e escritos, dos debates que foram se travando sobre a vida nacional francesa e mundial, sempre retomando os fios dos acontecimentos decisivos do período do Front Populaire (1936), da ocupação da França pelos nazistas e das lutas de Resistência buscar uma interpretação para muitos dos aspectos aparentemente desconcertantes de sua filmografia. Ao longo dos capítulos a pesquisa aborda, a partir de documentação esparsa em textos, declarações, debates, frases de filmes, os elementos biográficos "enigmáticos" de que se tem conhecimento, dada a discrição do cineasta sobre a sua pessoa. Em seguida o momento crucial da entrada de Marker, com 16 anos, no liceu em Paris e turbulências do ano de 1936, na França, discorre sobre o Front Populaire. Depois foca o nascimento de uma corrente, da qual Chris Marker participa, influenciada pela filosofia personalista de Emmanuel Mounier; e depois sua passagem pela revista Esprit e posteriormente a sua integração nas lutas da Resistência. Seguindo os passos do futuro cineasta, aborda o impacto da Resistência na vida militante e a formação dos cineclubes no meio operário com a Associação Peuple et Culture. Toda esta trajetória é permeada por comentários e análises de cenas dos futuros documentários. Por fim a pesquisa, aborda a problemática do cinema militante, analisando L'ambassade (1973), filme de solidariedade com a Unidade Popular chilena e contra o golpe de Pinochet e o curta sobre o editor François Maspero. Os últimos percalços de nosso percurso busca construir um debate sobre A. Medvedkine e V. Maiakóvsky e a profanação da arte moderna, procurando investigar como na obra de Chris Marker coincidem cinema militante, cinema experimental, cinema ensaio e cinema documentário.
Title in English
Paths in the formation years of Chris Marker: militant cinema, dissidence and profanation.
Keywords in English
Chris Marker
Experimental Cinema
Historical Avant-gardes
Militant cinema
Political Documentary
Soviet Cinema
Abstract in English
Chris Marker is an intriguing filmmaker who produced unconventional political documentaries over almost sixty years. After an active militancy, and inserted in the heart of crucial events in France and Europe, and working on a literary career as an editor, essayist and novelist, it is natural that his films, viewed in isolation, could cause the most equivocal interpretations. This research seeks, through a detailed analyses of his films and writings, to work with the debates that were important on the French national and global life of his time. Always thinking about the decisive events of the Front Populaire in the period (1936), the occupation of France by the German Nazis and the participation of Marker in the struggles of the Resistance. All of this puzzeled elements seek an interpretation for many of the seemingly confusing aspects of his filmography. Throughout the chapters of this research, we seek to approach, with this documentation, texts, statements, debates, films phrases, the enigmatic biographical elements of his uncanny formation. Marker is known by the discretion about himself. Working on his years of youth and formation, we see that when aged 16, in high school in Paris and the 1936 year in France, discussing at length the Front Populaire, we seek to work about Chris Marker influence by the personalist philosophy of Emmanuel Mounier and then by Esprit and later in it's integration in the struggles of resistance. Following in the footsteps of the filmmaker, this work discusses the impact of this years in his militant life, including the training of workers film clubs. All this history is permeated by scenes and debates of his future documentaries. Finally, the research addresses the issue of militant cinema, analyzing L'ambassade (1973), the solidarity with the Chilean Popular Unity and the struggle against the totalitarian latin american dictatorships, and a short film-portrait of the editor Maspero. We end our research with a debate on A. Medvedkine and V. Mayakovsky and the profanation of modern art, trying to investigate how the work of Chris Marker coincide with militant cinema, experimental cinema, film essay and documentary cinema.
 
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Publishing Date
2015-11-24
 
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