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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.39.2011.tde-09022012-095848
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Carolina Botelho Menegatti
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Mochizuki, Luis (President)
Bojadsen, Thais Weber de Alencar
Santos, Suely dos
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação biomecânica dos ajustes posturais em idosos caidores
Keywords in Portuguese
Ajuste postural
Idosos
Queda
Abstract in Portuguese
Para minimizar as perturbações posturais de um movimento, o controle postural ativa os músculos não associados ao movimento focal. Os ajustes posturas de idosos são menos eficientes para evitar as quedas. O medo da queda também é um risco de queda. Deste modo, o problema desta pesquisa é: como o ajuste postural é organizado para garantir o controle postural durante atividade voluntária nos idosos caidores? Participaram 40 idosos (72,1±2,7 anos) que foram divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com suas características de queda e atividade física. Cada grupo (n=10) realizou a tarefa de flexão rápida dos membros superiores em bases de apoio instável e estável, as tarefas de alcance anterior e lateral e responderam a Falls Eficacy Scale. A atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos do tronco e do membro inferior foi registrada nos intervalos típicos dos ajustes posturais. A atividade muscular foi maior nas tarefas de alcance, no ajuste postural online, nos idosos caidores e sem medo de cair. Os idosos sedentários mostraram maior ativação dos músculos da cadeia anterior e os idosos ativos da mostraram maior ativação da musculatura posterior. A variabilidade do sinal eletromiográfico foi maior no ajuste postural compensatório, na tarefa sobre base instável, em idosos caidores. Conclue-se que os idosos caidores aumentam a atividade muscular após o início de movimento para manter o equilíbrio durante a tarefa pela incapacidade de gerar um APA eficiente. Os fatores de risco extrínsecos para quedas são relevantes para os idosos, uma vez que prática da atividade física não elimina o risco de cair
Title in English
Biomechanical analysis of postural adjustments in the fallers elderlys
Keywords in English
Elderly
Fall
Postural adjustment
Abstract in English
To minimize the postural disturbance provoked by a movement, the postural control activates the postural muscles instead of the focal movement muscles. The postural adjustments in the elderly are not enough efficient to avoid the falls. The fear of falling is also a risk of falling. Thus, the research question is: how the posture adjustment is organized to ensure postural control during voluntary activity of the falling elderly? The participants were 40 elderly (72.1 ± 2.7 years old) who were divided into four groups according to their falls characteristics and physical activity. Each group (n = 10) performed the shoulder extension as fast as possible on the unstable and stable suportt bases, as well the anterior and lateral reach task. They answered the Falls Eficacy Scale. The electrical activity of the trunk and lower limb muscles were recorded within the typical ranges of the postural adjustments. The highest muscle activation occurred during the reach tasks, for the online postural adjustment, for the fallers and without fear of falling. The sedentary participants showed higher activation of the anterior muscles and the active participants presented higher activation of the posterior muscles. The variability of electromyographical activity is higher during the compensatory postural adjustment, for the unstable support basis and for the fallers. It is concluded that the falling elderly increases the muscle activity after the beginning of movement to maintain balance due to the anticipatory postural adjustment inefficiency. The extrinsic risk factors to fall are relevant for falling prevention in elderly, since the practice of physical activity does not eliminates the risk to fall
 
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Publishing Date
2012-02-10
 
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