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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.39.2010.tde-08122010-074011
Document
Author
Full name
Thiago Augusto Costa de Oliveira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Correa, Umberto Cesar (President)
Moraes, Renato de
Tani, Go
Title in Portuguese
Efeitos dos focos interno e externo de atenção na aprendizagem de habilidades motoras
Keywords in Portuguese
Aprendizagem motora
Foco de atenção
Foco externo
Foco interno
Golfe
Abstract in Portuguese
Os objetivos da dissertação foram investigar (a) os efeitos dos focos interno e externo de atenção na aprendizagem de habilidades motoras em função da automatização (experimento 1) e (b) se os efeitos do foco externo de atenção seriam dependentes daqueles do foco interno anteriores na instrução (experimento 2) e na aquisição (experimento 3). Nos três experimentos a tarefa foi a tacada putter do golfe e os participantes foram adultos jovens de ambos os sexos. A quantidade de tentativas na fase de aquisição também foi igual para os experimentos (100 tentativas). O experimento 1 envolveu dois grupos (foco interno e foco externo), sendo que metade de cada um, ao final da fase de aquisição e no teste de retenção foi testada com uma tarefa distratora. Os resultados mostraram que nenhum grupo alcançou a automatização e, por conseguinte, não aprenderam. O experimento 2 envolveu 4 grupos, sendo dois de foco interno e dois de foco externo na fase de aquisição. A diferença entre os grupos de igual foco esteve na instrução prévia, ou seja, um grupo de cada foco recebeu foco interno durante a instrução. Um outro aspecto do delineamento de experimento foi a utilização de testes de transferência e retenção. Os resultados mostraram aprendizagem apenas para o grupo de foco interno na instrução e foco externo na fase de aquisição. No experimento 3, ao invés de o foco interno ser dado na instrução para um grupo de foco interno e outro de foco externo, ele ocorreu na fase de aquisição. Verificou-se que somente o grupo com foco interno anteriormente ao foco externo na aquisição demonstrou aprendizagem
Title in English
Effects of internal and external foci of attention in learning motor skills
Keywords in English
External focus
Focus of attention
Golf
Internal focus
Motor learning
Abstract in English
The objectives of the dissertation were to investigate (a) the effects of internal and external foci of attention in learning motor skills due to automatisation (experiment 1) and (b) if the effects of external focus of attention would be dependent on those of previous internal focus instruction (experiment 2) and on acquisition (experiment 3). In the three experiments the task was the golf putter shot and the participants were young adults of both sexes. The number of attempts in the acquisition phase was also the same for the experiments (100 trials). The first experiment involved two groups (internal focus and external focus), and half of each, at the final phase of the acquisition and retention test was tested with a distracter task. The results showed that no group has achieved automaticity and therefore, they havent learned. The second experiment involved four groups, two of internal focus and two of external focus in the acquisition phase. The difference between the groups of equal focus was on previous instruction, i.e. one group of each focus received internal focus during previous instruction. Another aspect of the design of this experiment was the use of retention and transfer tests. The results showed learning only for the group with internal focus on instruction and external focus on the acquisition phase. In experiment 3, instead of the internal focus instruction being given to an internal and to an external focus group, it occurred in the acquisition phase. It was found that only the group with internal focus previous to the external focus in acquisition demonstrated learning
 
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Publishing Date
2010-12-17
 
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