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Master's Dissertation
Full name
Lucas Romero de Oliveira
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
São Paulo, 2017
Ragazzo, Mônica de Toledo Piza (President)
Casas, André Luis da Silva
Silva, Alessio Datovo da
Title in English
Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic importance of the branchial musculature in sharks of the superorder Galeomorphi (Chondrichthyes:Elasmobranchi)
Keywords in English
Branchial musculature
Compared anatomy
Abstract in English
The present work consists of an anatomical comparison of the branchial musculature of galeomorph groups in order to search for evidence that could indicate possible phylogenetically relevant patterns, especially related to the Heterodontiformes and other families within the orders of Galeomorphi. Previous studies based on other muscle complexes have contributed with information that helped to address thoses questions (Datavo & Vari, 2014; Soares & Carvalho, 2013a,b). Nine branchial muscles of 44 species among all galeomorph orders, 13 species from two of the five recognized squalomorph shark orders (Squaliformes and Hexanchiformes) and one batoidean were observed, totalizing 57 species. The results indicate a highly conserved anatomy on this anatomical complex, possibly indicating a conservative generalized condition at both chondrichthyan and gnathostomes level. The most informative muscles in this context were the m. trapezius, the m. adductores arcuum branchialium, the m. coracobranchiales, especially the portion associated with the last branchial arch, and the m. arcuales dorsalis. The other five muscles have little to no variation among different groups. The analysis of the muscular patterns indicates that lamniforms and carcharhiniforms are sister-groups and Orectolobiforms and Heterodontiforems are sister-groups, supported by the m. trapezius having a single ramus and absence of the insertion onto the epibranchial only in Orectolobiformes and Heterodontformes, as well as the fifth m. coracobranchialis has its fibers oriented forward, when opposed to two rami in the m. trapezius in all other orders and fibers of the fifth m. coracobranchialis either upwards or obliquely organized. Regarding carcharhiniform and lamniform relatioships, the muscles that provide evidence are the presence of a second ramus on the fifth m. coracobranchialis, with a single ramus in all other orders, the crescent shape of the m. adductores arcuum branchialium, with triangular shape in other groups, and the presence of a raphe between the antimeres of the m. constrictores branchiales superficiales, which are triangular outside this group. Also, it was found support for the division of shark groups between Galeomorphi and Squalomorphi with the presence of a posterior ramus on the m. arcuales dorsalis in squalomorph sharks
Title in Portuguese
Anatomia comparada e importância filogenética da musculatura branquial em tubarões da superordem Galeomorphi (Chondrichthyes:Elasmobranchi
Keywords in Portuguese
Anatomia comparada
Musculatura branquial
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente trabalho consiste em uma comparação anatômica da musculatura branquial em Galeomorphi visando determinar se há possíveis padrões que indiquem proximidades filogenéticas, especialmente relacionados com a ordem Heterodontiformes e outras famílias de ordens dentro de Galeomorphi. A análise de musculatura já se provou de grande ajuda para identificar estas questões. Foram observados nove músculos em 44 espécies de todas as ordens Galeomorphi, 13 espécies em duas das cinco ordens de tubarões Squalomorphi (Squaliformes e Hexanchiformes) e um exemplar de Batoidea, totalizando 57 espécies. Os resultados indicam que este complexo anatômico é extremamente conservado e generalizado. Os músculos mais informativos neste contexto foram m. trapezius, m. adductores arcuum branchialium, m. coracobranchiales, em especial o músculo associado ao último arco, e m. arcuales dorsales. Outros músculos apresentam variações em poucos ou nenhum grupo. A análise dos padrões das musculaturas indica que Lamniformes é grupo-irmão de Carcharhiniformes e Orectolobiformes é grupo-irmão de Heterodontiformes, indicando este relacionamento próximo entre Orectolobiformes e Heterodontiformes a morfologia do m. trapezius, mais maciço e sem divisões, características restritas a ambas as ordens, e as fibras do quinto m. coracobranchialis são direcionadas para a frente, enquanto que se dirigem para cima ou obliquamente em outros grupos. Indicam um relacionamento entre Carcharhinformes e Lamniformes a presença de dois ramos no quinto m. coracobranchialis, a forma de meia lua do m. adductores arcuum branchialium e a presença de uma rafe entre os antímeros do m. constrictores branchiales superficiales, todas características restritas a representantes dessas ordens. Também foi encontrado suporte para a divisão de tubarões em Galeomorphi e Squalomorphi. Esta divisão é indicada principalmente pela presença do ramo posterior do m. arcuales dorsales em tubarões do grupo Squalomorphi
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