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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.42.2011.tde-20102011-133503
Document
Author
Full name
Fernando Lucas de Melo
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade (President)
Casseb, Jorge Simão do Rosário
Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos
Levi, José Eduardo
Oshiro, Telma Miyuki
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização biológica e molecular de recombinantes naturais de HIV-1.
Keywords in Portuguese
Diversidade genética
Evolução molecular
Filogenia
Genomas
HIV
Recombinação genética
Abstract in Portuguese
A recombinação durante a transcrição reversa é um fator importante no aumento da diversidade genética e adaptação do HIV-1, permitindo que mutações vantajosas presentes em diferentes linhagens sejam combinadas em um mesmo genoma. No Brasil, vários recombinantes foram descritos e seis formas recombinantes circulantes (CRFs) já foram identificados, demonstrando a relevância destes recombinantes na epidemia brasileira. Portanto, um dos objetivos desta tese foi analisar os dados gerados pela Rede de Diversidade Genética Viral (VGDN) (sequências parciais de gag, pol e env), a fim de identificar recombinantes inter-subtipos de HIV-1 e avaliar a frequência e distribuição geográfica destes vírus. Utilizando diferentes técnicas foram identificados 152/1083 pacientes portadores de recombinantes BF. A frequência destes recombinantes foi maior em cidades como São Vicente (30%) e Sorocaba (22,6%), sendo que os recombinantes circulantes em São Vicente foram geralmente relacionados às CRF28 e CRF29, enquanto que os vírus presentes na região de Sorocaba comumente apresentam um envelope subtipo F1, independente do subtipo nos demais genes. Além disso, o gene da integrase de 159 pacientes foi amplificado e sequenciado. A análise deste gene revelou mais 10 pacientes infectados com recombinantes BF e nenhuma mutação de resistência primária aos inibidores da integrase foi encontrada. O segundo objetivo foi isolar e caracterizar recombinantes BF in vitro. O isolamento viral foi realizado por co-cultivo e ao final foram obtidos 10 isolados primários. O sequenciamento do genoma quase completo desses dez isolados primários revelou que três isolados primários pertencem ao grupo da CRF28_BF, três ao grupo da CRF29_BF e quatro foram classificados como formas recombinantes únicas (URFs). Ainda, o uso de correceptores desses isolados foi avaliado in vitro em ensaios com as células GHOST(3), e revelou três duplo-trópicos (X4/R5) vírus, quatro CXCR4 (X4) e três isolados utilizaram apenas CCR5 (R5). Em suma, uma alta frequência de URFs foi encontrada em algumas cidades do Estado de São Paulo, e também foi desenvolvido e caracterizado um painel de isolados primários representando as CRF28_BF, CRF29_BF e algumas URFs.
Title in English
Biological and molecular characterization of HIV-1 natural recombinants.
Keywords in English
Genetic diversity
Genetic recombination
Genomes
HIV
Molecular evolution
Phylogeny
Abstract in English
Recombination during reverse transcription is an important factor promoting HIV-1 diversity and adaptive change, allowing advantageous mutations arising on different genomes to undergo linkage in the same progeny recombinant genome more frequently than what would be expected under random mutation alone. In Brazil, several recombinant viruses were reported, and six circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have already been identified. Therefore, the first objective of this Thesis was to analyze the data generated by the Viral Genetic Diversity Network (VGDN) (gag, pol and env partial sequences), in order to identify HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants and evaluate the frequency and geographical distribution of these viruses. Using different techniques we identified 152/1083 patients harboring BF recombinants. The frequency of these recombinants was higher in cities like São Vicente (30%) and Sorocaba (22.6 %). The recombinant viruses circulating in São Vicente were generally related to CRF28 and CRF29, while those viruses circulating in Sorocaba commonly presented an envelope region of subtype F1, irrespective the subtype composition on the remaining genes. Additionally, the integrase gene of HIV-1 from 159 patients was further amplified and sequenced. The analysis of this viral gene revealed ten more patients infected with BF recombinants and no primary mutations related to integrase inhibitor resistance were found. The second objective was to isolate and characterize BF recombinants in vitro, which resulted in ten primary HIV-1 isolates. The near full-length genomes of these ten primary isolates revealed that three were related to CRF28_BF, three to CRF29_BF and four were unique recombinant forms (URFs), according to their breakpoints profile determined with the jpHMM program. Additionally, the coreceptor usage of these isolate was investigated in vitro using GHOST assays, which revealed three dual-tropic (X4/R5) viruses, four CXCR4 (X4) viruses and three CCR5 (R5) viruses. In sum, we report a high frequency of URFs in some cities of São Paulo State, and also developed a well-characterized panel of viruses representing CRF28_BF, CRF29_BF and URFs.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-11-11
 
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