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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Walt Mendes da Silva de Bastiani
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Ishida, Kelly (President)
Almeida, Sandro Rogerio de
Júnior, João Nobrega de Almeida
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias
Title in Portuguese
Sistemas de liberação para anfotericina B e miltefosina no tratamento das candidíases.
Keywords in Portuguese
Candida
Galleria mellonella
Alginato
Anfotericina B
Candidíases
Microemulsões
Miltefosina
Nanopartículas
Abstract in Portuguese
As leveduras de Candida spp. fazem parte da microbiota humana, entretanto podem causar tanto micoses superficiais quanto sistêmicas. As opções terapêuticas para as candidíases incluem três principais classes, os agentes poliênicos, azólicos e equinocandinas; no entanto, a maioria deles apresentam desvantagens de toxicidade e/ou farmacocinética, custos relativamente altos e aumento de isolados resistentes aos antifúngicos. A miltefosina (MFS), um composto alquilfosfocolina, é atualmente usada no tratamento de câncer de mama e de leishmanioses. Estudos prévios apontam a MFS como potencial alternativa para o tratamento das infecções fúngicas, porém possui elevada toxicidade. Dessa forma, este trabalho visa avaliar alternativas para o tratamento de candidíases. MFS e seus análogos sintéticos; nanopartículas de alginato e microemulsões como sistemas de liberação de MFS e/ou anfotericina B (AMB) foram avaliados quanto a atividade antifúngica in vitro e in vivo usando modelos de Galleria mellonella e modelo murino de candidíase vaginal. Dos análogos estruturais da MFS o composto 1 foi o mais ativo, apresentando efeito fungicida de maneira dose e tempo dependente; com a presença de ergosterol exógeno os valores de CIM de MFS e do composto 1 aumentam quando a concentração de ergosterol aumenta no meio de cultura, sugerindo que MFS e o composto 1 possam interagir com o ergosterol resultando em alteração da permeabilidade de membrana. Em ensaios de susceptibilidade in vitro a MFS livre foi mais efetiva que a MFS incorporada em nanopartículas de alginato (MFS.Alg) para todas as cepas de Candida spp. testadas. Em contrapartida, larvas de G. mellonella infectadas com C. albicans (SC 5314 ou IAL-40) foram protegidas da infecção quando tratadas com MFS.Alg (100 mg/Kg) em que houve redução das taxas de mortalidade e de morbidade, bem como redução da carga fúngica e do processo de filamentação do fungo. A AMB e a MFS foram efetivas no modelo larvário em doses de 1 e 20 mg/kg, respectivamente. Importantemente, a MFS em nanocarreador de alginato foi menos tóxica quando comparado com a sua forma livre. Adicionalmente, microemulsões (ME) foram produzidas para a incorporação de AMB e MFS. A formação de um sistema monofásico semelhante a um gel é visualizada com absorção de água após 4 horas de incubação em que agregados bem estruturados são formados indicando a fase hexagonal. Em modelo murino de candidíase vaginal as formulações de AMB e MFS em sistemas de liberação [MFS.Alg (1x), MFS-ME (3x), AMB-ME (3x)] foram comparadas com a formulação em creme [MFS-CR (6x) e AMB-CR (6x)], e todas foram capazes de reduzir a carga fúngica do tecido vaginal, porém as formulações em sistema de liberação foram as mais vantajosas comparadas com a formulação em creme tendo em vista a redução do custo e do número de aplicações levando a maior comodidade do paciente durante o tratamento da candidíase vaginal. Os resultados obtidos mostram dentre os análogos da MFS o Composto 1 foi o que melhor apresentou atividade antifúngica; e que a AMB e/ou MFS incorporadas em sistemas de liberação controlada (nanopartículas de alginato e microemulsões) foram capazes de reduzir efeitos colaterais (no caso da MFS) e de reduzir a carga fúngica nos tecidos infectados, podendo ser alternativas terapêuticas para o tratamento das candidíases.
Title in English
Release systems for amphotericin B and miltefosine in the treatment of candidiasis.
Keywords in English
Candida
Galleria mellonella
Alginate
Amphotericin B
Candidiasis
Microemulsions
Miltefosine
Nanoparticles
Abstract in English
The yeasts of Candida spp. are part of the human microbiota; however, they can cause both superficial and systemic mycoses. Therapeutic options for candidiasis include three main classes, polyenes, azoles and echinocandins; however, most of them exhibit disadvantages of toxicity and/or pharmacokinetics, relatively high costs and increase of antifungal resistant isolates. Miltefosine (MFS), an alkylphosphocholine compound, is currently used in the treatment of breast cancer and leishmaniasis. Previous studies indicate MFS as an alternative potential for the fungal infections treatment, but it has high toxicity. Thus, this study aims to evaluate alternatives for the treatment of candidiasis. MFS and its synthetic analogs; alginate nanoparticles and microemulsions such as release systems for MFS and / or amphotericin B (AMB) were evaluated for antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo using Galleria mellonella model and murine model of vaginal candidiasis. Among the analogs of MFS, compound 1 was the most active, showing a fungicidal effect in a dose-dependent manner; with the presence of exogenous ergosterol the MIC values of MFS and compound 1 increase when the concentration of ergosterol increases in the culture medium, suggesting that MFS and compound 1 may interact with ergosterol resulting in an altered membrane permeability. In vitro susceptibility assays the free MFS was more effective than the MFS incorporated in alginate nanoparticles (MFS.Alg) against all strains of Candida spp. tested. In contrast, C. albicans-infected G. mellonella larvae (SC 5314 or IAL-40) were protected from infection when treated with MFS.Alg (100 mg/kg) in which mortality and morbidity rates were reduced, as well as reduction of the fungal load and filamentation. AMB and MFS were effective in the larval model at doses of 1 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Importantly, MFS in alginate nanocarrier was less toxic when compared to its free form. In addition, microemulsions (ME) were produced for the incorporation of AMB and MFS. The formation of a single-phase gel-like system is visualized with water absorption after 4 hours of incubation in which well-structured aggregates are formed indicating the hexagonal phase. In the murine model of vaginal candidiasis, formulations of AMB and MFS incorporated in release systems [MFS.Alg (1x), MFS-ME (3x), AMB-ME (3x)] were compared with the cream formulation [MFS-CR 6x) and AMB-CR (6x)], and all formulations were able to reduce the fungal load of vaginal tissue, but the release-system formulations were the most advantageous compared to the cream formulation in order to reduce the cost and number of applications leading to greater patient comfort during the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. The results obtained show that among the analogs of MFS, compound 1 was the one that presented the best antifungal activity; and that AMB and/or MFS incorporated in controlled release systems (alginate nanoparticles and microemulsions) were able to reduce side effects (in the case of MFS) and reduce fungal load in infected tissues, and they could be therapeutic alternatives for treatment of the candidiasis.
 
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Release Date
2021-01-27
Publishing Date
2019-05-08
 
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