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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.42.2008.tde-18112008-172851
Document
Author
Full name
Juliana Bortolatto
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Russo, Momtchilo (President)
Basso, Alexandre Salgado
Bozza, Marcelo Torres
Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva
Lima, Maria Regina D'Imperio
Title in Portuguese
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) na modulação da imunidade do tipo 2.
Keywords in Portuguese
Adjuvante de hidróxido de alumínio (Alum)
Asma experimental
Lipopolissacarídeo bacteriano (LPS)
OVA
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)
Toxóide Tetânico (TT)
Abstract in Portuguese
Lipopolissacarídeos (LPS), pode tanto proteger quanto exacerbar o desenvolvimento da asma. LPS inicia a ativação da resposta imune via ligação da molécula Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) que sinaliza por duas vias distintas, as moléculas adaptadoras MyD88 e TRIF. LPS é um adjuvante que induz resposta do tipo Th1, enquanto que o hidróxido de alumínio (Alum) desperta respostas Th2, porém, a mistura de ambos adjuvantes na indução da resposta alérgica pulmonar ainda não foi investigada. No presente estudo, nós determinamos o efeito de dois agonistas de TLR4, um natural (LPS) e outro sintético (ER-803022) adsorvidos ao Alum sobre o desenvolvimento de doença alérgica pulmonar. Os animais foram sensibilizados pela via subcutânea com os antígenos, Ovoalbumina (OVA) ou Toxóide Tetânico (TT) na presença ou ausência de agonistas de TLR4 co-adsorvidos ao Alum e desafiados com os respectivos antígenos pela via intranasal. Nossos resultados mostraram que a sensibilização com OVA ou TT e LPS coadsorvidos ao Alum, impede o estabelecimento da resposta alérgica mediada por linfócitos Th2, tais como, influxo de eosinófilos, produção de citocinas do tipo 2, hiperreatividade brônquica, secreção de muco, e produção de IgE ou IgG1 anafilática. Apesar dos níveis de IgG2a, isotipo associado com as respostas Th1 estarem aumentados, análise da histopatologia pulmonar não revelou um desvio para o padrão Th1 de inflamação. Verificamos que a presença das moléculas TLR4, MyD88, IL-12/IFN-g mas não TRIF foram necessários para LPS exercer seu efeito inibitório. O agonista sintético de TLR4, menos tóxico que LPS, também protegeu contra o desenvolvimento de inflamação alérgica pulmonar. Em conclusão, nosso trabalho esclarece o efeito da sinalização do TLR4 na sensibilização alérgica e indica que agonista sintético de TLR4 com baixa toxicidade, pode ser utilizado para modular a capacidade adjuvante do Alum e conseqüentemente diminuir a indução de alergias.
Title in English
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and modulation of Th2 immunity.
Keywords in English
Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (Alum)
Experimental asthma
Lipopolysaccharides bacterial (LPS)
OVA
Tetanic toxoid (TT)
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)
Abstract in English
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can either protect from or exacerbate allergic asthma. LPS triggers immune responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 that in turn activates two major signaling pathways via either MyD88 or TRIF adaptor proteins. LPS is a pro-Th1 adjuvant while aluminum hydroxide (Alum) is a strong Th2 adjuvant, but the effect of mixing both adjuvants on development of lung allergy has not been investigated. We determined whether natural (LPS) or synthetic (ER-803022) TLR4 agonists adsorbed onto alum adjuvant affect allergen sensitization and development of airway allergic disease. To dissect LPS-induced molecular pathways we used TLR4, MyD88, TRIF, or IL-12/IFN-g deficient mice. Mice were sensitized subcutaneously to allergens such as ovalbumin (OVA) or tetanus toxoid (TT) with or without TLR4 agonists coadsorbed onto Alum and challenged twice via intranasal route with the same allergens. The development of type 2 immunity was evaluated 24 h after last allergen challenge. We found that sensitization with OVA or TT plus LPS co-adsorbed onto Alum impaired allergeninduced Th2-mediated responses such as airway eosinophilia, type 2 cytokines secretion, airway hyperreactivity, mucus hyper production and serum levels of IgE or IgG1 anaphylactic antibodies. Although the levels of IgG2a, a Th1 affiliated isotype increased, investigation into the lung-specific effects revealed that LPS did not induce a Th1 pattern of inflammation. LPS impaired the development of Th2 immunity, signaling via TLR4 and MyD88 molecules via the IL-12/IFN-g axis, but not through TRIF pathway. Moreover, the synthetic TLR4 agonists that proved to have a less systemic inflammatory response than LPS also protected against allergic asthma development. TLR4 agonists co-adsorbed with allergen onto Alum down modulate Th2 immunity and prevent the development of polarized T cell-mediated airway inflammation. Thus, our work clarifies the effect of TLR4 signaling in allergic sensitization and indicates that TLR4 agonists with low toxicity might be useful for down regulating the pro-Th2 adjuvant activity of alum and consequently decrease the induction of allergy.
 
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Publishing Date
2009-02-18
 
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