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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.42.2012.tde-29012013-090136
Document
Author
Full name
Camila Gomes Victorino
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Baldo, Marcus Vinicius Chrysostomo (President)
Claessens, Peter Maurice Erna
Ranvaud, Ronald Dennis Paul Kenneth Clive
Title in Portuguese
Estudo do desenvolvimento de estratégias decisionais em escolhas binárias repetidas.
Keywords in Portuguese
Cadeias de Markov
Infância
Recompensas
Tomada de decisão
Velhice
Abstract in Portuguese
Estudos têm mostrado que nem sempre indivíduos maximizam seus ganhos. Quando confrontados a uma sequência binária, cuja recompensa aparece mais em uma das alternativas, ao invés de perseverarem no lado de maior aparecimento, os voluntários adultos escolhem um lado tantas vezes quanto esse lado apresente a recompensa. Foi relatado, entretanto, que crianças perseverariam no lado mais freqüente, maximizando. Estudos relatam a possibilidade de adultos não perseverarem, porque procurariam padrões na sequência; procurou-se realizar quatro experimentos com sequências sem e com padrões (cadeias de Markov), de modo que se pudesse observar e comparar as estratégias de decisão das faixas etárias para padrão ou sem ele. Os resultados mostraram que existe uma tendência à perseveração, com o envelhecimento, e não o contrário, em detrimento da possibilidade de assimilar padrões. Eles também mostram que a assimilação de padrões se desenvolve gradualmente e decai com o envelhecimento, invalidando a ideia de que a não-maximização seja apenas fruto da busca por padrões.
Title in English
Decisional strategies in binary choice tasks from childhood to senescence.
Keywords in English
Children
Decision making
Markov chains
Old age
Rewards
Abstract in English
Studies have shown subjects dont maximize their profits all the time. When confronted with binary sequences, with rewards that show up more in one alternative than another, adult volunteers choose one side as the number of rewards the side shows; instead of maximizing in the side that shows more rewards. However, it was related children maximize. Studies assert to the possibility that adults dont maximize because they are searching for a pattern in the sequence. Four experiments were made with sequences with and without a pattern, so that we could observe and compare the decision making strategies between ages for patterns and non-patterns. Results show a tendency to maximization with aging and not the contrary, how was related, and to the detriment of pattern assimilation possibilities; also results show the pattern finding develops gradually with growth and worse with aging. In this way, searching for patterns cant be the only explanation for the non-maximization behavior.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-04-30
 
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