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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.43.1994.tde-27022014-113956
Document
Author
Full name
Luiz Santiago de Assis
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 1994
Supervisor
Committee
Vieira Junior, Nilson Dias (President)
Gomes, Laércio
Li, Maximo Siu
Oliveira, Luiz Nunes de
Schwab, Carlos
Title in Portuguese
Estudo do comportamento temporal do lasr C.W. de ND:YAG usando cristais com centros de cor como absorvedores saturáveis.
Keywords in Portuguese
Centros de cor
Geração de pulsos curtos
Óptica
Abstract in Portuguese
Existe uma família de centros de cor e cristais dopados com íons metálicos que absorvem na região de emissão do laser de neodímio. Dentre estes, os que são laser ativos são normalmente bombeados em um esquema de cavidades colineares. Eles podem também ser usados como absorvedores saturáveis para o chaveamento Q passivo, C.W. Porém, neste caso a absorção máxima intracavidade que pode ser introduzida é limitada de forma a permitir que a ação laser ocorra. Assim, no caso de ser simultaneamente utilizado como absorvedor e meio ativo existe uma limitação do ganho máximo que o meio ativamente bombeado pode alcançar. Usando-se um esquema de cavidades acopladas, estudamos o desempenho dos centros de cor KCl:T1° (1) e LiF: F POT - IND 2 , para gerar chaveamento Q c.w. passivo (Q- switching) e o travamento de modos (mode-locking) com o esquema de cavidades acima mencionada, na região espectral do infravermelho. Em particular estudamos a ação laser simultânea dos centros KCl: Tl° (1) e do laser de Nd:YAG com o esquema de cavidades acopladas citado, onde o centro de cor tinha o papel dual de absorvedor saturável e meio de ganho. Obteve-se uma alta extração do laser de KCl:Tl° (1), atingindo o limite teórico de 40%, no regime Q-switched c.w.pois a única fonte de perdas do laser de bombeio é o absorvedor saturável. Devido ao baixo ganho dos materiais mencionados e a alta intensidade de saturação foram exploradas as propriedades da cavidade com compensação astigmática, que permite uma grande focalização do feixe sobre o cristal, num regime de cavidades acopladas. Além deste esquema, usamos também um método de bombeamento colinear para a obtenção do travamento de modos ativo-passivo no regime C. W. do laser de Nd: YAG 1 usando o LiF: F POT IND 2 como elemento de modulação passiva dos pulsos. Como um absorvedor saturável lento este necessita de cavidades longas para a obtenção deste regime de operação. Os pulsos modulados (ativamente) sofrem um processo de modulação passiva, o que é dado pela mudança do seu perfil de intensidade de gaussiano para exponencial simétrica, caracterizando a mudança do travamento de modos ativo para passivo.
Title in English
Study of temporal behavior of laser C.W. of ND:YAG using crystals with color centers as saturable absorbers.
Keywords in English
Centers color
Generation of short pulses
Optics
Abstract in English
In general, tunable lasers are colinearlly pumped by other powerfull lasers. In the particular case of color centers, that cover the near infrared spectral region, there is a shortcoming due to the difficulty of creating high densities of centers to efficiently extract output energy. One possible way to circumvent this problem is to use intracavity pumping, but there is a limiting factor that is the maximum available gain of the pumping laser, that limits the maximum absortion that can be introduced in the pump laser cavity. A coupled cavities scheme is a solution to solve this problem. In this sense, this scheme was studied using a simple theoretical model. Two sets of experiments were performed, using LiF:F2 and KCl:T1°(1) color centers. In the first case, in which the LiF: F-2 centers were used only as saturable absorber, it was demonstrated that the coupled cavity is responsable for the temporal behavior of the main laser, and operation in the Q-switched mode was obtained, wi th pulses of 1 SJ..S duration. In the second case, KCl:Tl° (1) color centers are also laser active and simultaneous laser operation were achieved, in the Q-switched regime. The remarkable fact was that the pumping efficiency was close to the maximum theoretically allowed and the pulse duration was also totally dependent on the control cavi ty. In both cases, the pulse time duration was in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The mode-locking regime in these scheme was also studied, using LiF: F-2 color centers, that has a decay time much longer than the cavity round trip time. By the reducing gain a partial modulation in the couple cavity scheme, we only observed a partial modulation of the laser power, indicating that other effects prevent the full modulation. In these case, the effective absortion used was 0,6 % .In order to explore the role of the saturable absorbers in the mode-locking regime, a active modulator was used to start and sustain the regime, besides the presence of the crystal inside the cavity. We clearly observed a change in the shape of the pulses from gaussian to hyperbolic secant squared that is a characteristic of the passivily mode-locked system. In the optimum case the pulse duration was reduced by a factor of 2,4.
 
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