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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.43.2018.tde-26032018-153451
Document
Author
Full name
André Araujo Burger
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo (President)
Andrade, Maria de Fatima
Rizzo, Luciana Varanda
Title in Portuguese
Composição do aerossol atmosférico na Amazônia com influência antropogênica: estudo de caso no experimento GoAmazon
Keywords in Portuguese
Aerossol; Poluição Atmosférica; Amazônia; Manaus;
Abstract in Portuguese
Foi avaliado quantitativamente o impacto que as atividades antropogênicas da cidade de Manaus causam na composição elementar dos aerossóis na Amazônia central. Para isso, foram amostrados aerossóis em três sítios experimentais entre 2014 e 2015: 1) ZF2, sítio com floresta preservada, 2) Hotel TIWA com impacto direto de emissões de Manaus e 3) Manacapuru sítio vento abaixo da cidade de Manaus. Dos filtros coletados obteve-se a concentração de diferentes componentes do material particulado (MP): Black Carbon Equivalente (BCe), elementos traço (Na até Pb), concentração de MP e carbono elementar e orgânico (EC e OC) separados em MP Fino (MPF, diâmetro menor que 2,5µm) e MP grosso (MPG, diâmetro entre 2,5µm e 10µm). A concentração média de MPF apresentou forte sazonalidade em todos os sítios com concentrações variando de 2,3±2,7µg/m³ para 5,5±2,7µg/m³ na ZF2 e 3,7±2,0µg/m³ para 11,0±7,6µg/m³ no TIWA na estação chuvosa e seca, respectivamente. Elementos traços associados a processos industriais e/ou veiculares apresentaram concentração média de aproximadamente 2 a 6 vezes maior no sítio TIWA que na ZF2. O balanço de massa indicou que entre 50% e 80% do MPF foi de matéria orgânica (MO), 15% a 20% foi de sulfato e de 8 a 20% de BCe. Comparações entre as concentrações de MO, indicaram aerossol mais envelhecido em Manacapuru. A aplicação da Análise de Componentes Principais Absoluta (ACPA) no MPF extraiu fatores regionais em todos os sítios: queima de biomassa, poeira mineral e aerossol marinho, além de fatores como poluição industrial e veicular nos sítios afetados pela pluma de Manaus. Além desses fatores encontrados pela ACPA, o método Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) extraiu um fator biogênico no MPF e mais de um fator marinho para o MPG relacionados com o processamento do aerossol marinho. A concentração de MP extraído no TIWA para fatores diretamente relacionados com atividade antropogênica é em média de 905ng/m³ (MPF) e 1285ng/m³ (MPG).
Title in English
Anthropogenic Influence on Atmospheric Aerosol Composition at Amazon Basin: Case Study of GoAmazon Campaign
Keywords in English
Amazon; aerosol; atmospheric pollution; Manaus;
Abstract in English
This work quantitatively investigated the impact of anthropogenic emissions from Manaus City on the elemental composition of aerosol at Central Amazonia collecting particulate matter (PM) from 2014 to 2015 at ZF2, upwind of Manaus and TIWA and Manacapuru, downwind of Manaus. From the filters collected, different components of the PM were measured: equivalent Black Carbon (eBC), trace elements (Na to Pb), PM concentration and Elemental and Organic Carbon (EC and OC) with fine (FPM, diameter < 2.5um) and coarse (CPM, 2.5um < diameter < 10um) mode separated. At the dry season, FPM concentration was 5,5ug/m³ at ZF2 and 11,0ug/m³ at TIWA and for the CPM it was of 5,5ug/m³, 7,1ug/m³, respectively. During the wet season, reduction on the concentration of all sites at both modes was observed. Mass Balance Analysis showed that Organic Matter (OM) varied approximately from 50% to 80%, sulfate from 15% to 20% and eBC from 8% to 20% for the FPM. Comparisons between OM, obtained through spectrometry, and OC showed a more aged aerosol at Manacapuru than at TIWA. Absolute Principal Components Analysis (APCA) extracted three main factors at all sites for the FPM: biomass burning, marine aerosol and soil dust whilst PMF could also extract a biogenic factor. For the sites downwind of Manaus, factors related with anthropogenic emission were extracted. For the CPM three factors were identified at all sites: biogenic emission, soil dust and marine aerosol. PMF also found a second factor related with Cl depletion on marine aerosol. At the site TIWA both methods extracted a factor identified as pollution and PMF also found a factor related with vehicular emissions whilst at Manacapuru on APCA extracted a pollution factor. Direct anthropogenic emissions vehicular and pollution factors - at TIWA varies from 880ng/m³ (ACPA) to 930ng/m³ (PMF) in fine mode. In the coarse mode 790ng/m³ (APCA) to 1780ng/m³ (PMF).
 
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Publishing Date
2018-03-28
 
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