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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.46.1996.tde-08022008-144553
Document
Author
Full name
Pérola de Castro Vasconcellos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 1996
Supervisor
Committee
Andrade, Jaílson Bittencourt de (President)
Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo
Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido
Rezende, Maria Olimpia de Oliveira
Roque, Nídia Franca
Title in Portuguese
Um estudo sobre a caracterização de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos e seus derivados, e hidrocarbonetos alifáticos saturados em material particulado atmosférico proveniente de sítios urbanos, suburbanos e forestais
Keywords in Portuguese
HPA e derivados no ar
Material particulado atmosférico
Poluição atmosférica
Abstract in Portuguese
Entre os componentes orgânicos do material particulado atmosférico, os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem importância pois além de responder positivamente a testes de mutagenicidade como os que utilizam a Salmonella typhimurium, fornecem informações sôbre a origem e a reatividade atmosférica. Em particular os isômeros do nitropireno e nitrofluoranteno são indicadores da poluição veicular (1-nitropireno é emitido diretamente por motores a diesel) ou relacionam-se a reatividade fotoquímica (2-nitrofluoranteno e 2-nitropireno são formados na fase gasosa pela reação dos HPAs precursores com NO2 e radicais OH e NO3). Este estudo teve o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os nitro-HPAs visando a avaliação da contribuição antropogênica e fotoquímica nos estudos dos processos responsáveis pela presença destes nitroarenos na atmosfera em sítios com diferentes características, comparando resultados obtidos nos centros urbanos (emissões diretas) e na floresta Amazônica (possível emissão durante a queima da biomassa). Paralelamente foi avaliada a ocorrência dos HPAs e dos hidrocarbonetos alifáticos saturados. Estes forneceram informações sôbre as principais fontes de emissão dos particulados nos vários sítios, a contribuição relativa das emissões naturais e antropogênicas e o tempo de residência das partículas. Na primeira fase do estudo foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para a separação dos nitro-HPAs, dos hidrocarbonetos alifáticos, HPAs e HPAs oxigenados que são particularmente abundantes no material particulado emitido pelos veículos e durante as queimadas. Esta metodologia foi testada e aperfeiçoada na Itália sôbre amostras coletadas em 3 sítios diferentes por amostradores de grande volume. Após a extração em Soxhlet, foi desenvolvido um método de extração líquida mais simples e rápida que as recentemente publicadas metodologias de separação, baseadas em colunas de alumina básica. A boa separação das classes de compostos mostrou que a metodologia desenvolvida foi adequada para determinação posterior dos HPAs, nitro-HPAs e oxi-HPAs em amostras de composição complexa como aquelas de origem natural, antropogênica e fotoquímica, típicas da Amazônia e São Paulo, que foram posteriormente analisadas.
Title in English
Study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons charactization determined on atmospheric particulate matter collected in urban, suburban and forest areas
Keywords in English
Air pollution
Atmospheric particulate matter
PAH and nitro-PAH
Abstract in English
A detailed knowledge of the organic components of the atmospheric suspended particulate matter is extremely useful for assessing the photochemical reactivity of the atmosphere, long-range transport of polluted air masses and the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources to the total amount of organic matter that can be introduced into man' s body. Among the organic species is very important the knowledge of the levels reached by nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) in general, and particularly nitrofluoranthene (NF a) and nitropyrene (NPy) isomers since these compounds not only provides information on the extent to which anthropogenic sources can contribute to suspended particulate matter but it is also useful for evaluating the photochemical processes occurring in the atmosphere. The possibility to use nitrofluoranthene and nitropyrene as indicators of biogenic emission and photochemical smog pollution associated with the observation that one of them (l-nitropyrene) is directly emitted by vehicular sources whereas the others (2-NFa and 2-NPy) are formed by gas-phase reactions of their parent PAH with OH and N03 radicals in the presence of N02. Another important reason for monitoring nitro-PAH is that they positively respond to mutagenicity tests performed with Salmonella typhimurium Strain TA 98 carried out without activation. This work had the aim of identify and quantify the nitro-PAH to evaluate the anthropogenic and photochemical contribution and study the main processes risponsible for the presence of these nitroarenes in the atmosphere in sites of differents characteristics, comparing the results of urban sites (direct emissions) to the forest sites. It is also important to know the particulate matter composition with respect to n-alkanes and PAH associated with the particulate matter because they provide indication on the main sources contributing to airbome particles, the reI ative contribution of natural vs. man-made emission and the aging of the particles. In the first part of this work a methodology to separate the nitro-PAH from the n-alkanes, PAH and oxy-PAH which are particularly abundant in the particulate matter emitted by the vehicles and during the biomass burning was developed. This new methodology has been tested and improved in Italy on samples from three different sites collected on Hi-vol filters which were submited to Soxhlet extraction and then purified by a new liquid-liquid extraction method which is simpler and faster than the recently published basic alumina based purification procedure. The results indicate the new methodology was suitable to determine the PAH, nitro-PAH and oxy-PAH in samples of complex composition as those from Amazon Basin and São Paulo City which were analysed later.
 
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Publishing Date
2008-03-18
 
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