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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.46.2008.tde-17062009-144423
Document
Author
Full name
Auzebio Valvassori Filho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Rothschild, Lilian (President)
Bazito, Reinaldo Camino
Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação da qualidade do ar de cabines de veículos automotores recém-manufaturados
Keywords in Portuguese
Ar Cabine Automotiva
Cheiro do Carro Novo
Compostos Carbonílicos
COV
Qualidade Ar Ambiente Interno
Abstract in Portuguese
Cabines de veículos automotores recém-manufaturados podem ser consideradas críticas quando se avalia a qualidade do ar interno, pois concentrações de compostos orgânicos voláteis encontram-se em níveis mais altos que os ambientes externos. Determinadas substâncias presentes no ar da cabine podem ser prejudiciais ao ser humano em função da sua toxicidade, pricipalmente nos grandes centros urbanos. A avaliação do ar da cabine automotiva se faz necessária. Nesse estudo, foi feita uma avaliação da qualidade do ar interno da cabine de 7 veículos populares recém-manufaturados contendo materiais de acabamento interno iguais. Um total de 46 compostos orgânicos voláteis foi identificado, sendo que 14 deles são compostos carbonílicos e 32 são hidrocarbonetos alifáticos e aromáticos, compostos halogenados e um nitrogenado. Os compostos carbonílicos foram identificados e quantificados por cromatografia a líquido e os outros VOCs apenas identificados por GC-MS. No ar interno da cabine dos veículos estudados, as concentrações médias encontradas para os compostos carbonílicos (µg/m3) em ordem decrescente foram: formaldeído (165,3); acetona (67,5); acetaldeído (56,8); isovaleraldeído (40,8); propionaldeído (21,1); butiraldeído (17,9); crotonaldeído (14,9); hexaldeído (14,9) valeraldeído (9,8); 2.5- dimetilbenzaldeído (9,3); otolualdeído (8,4); p/m tolualdeído (6,8); acroleína (4,2) e benzaldeído (3,8). Com relação aos outros VOCS foram identificados o metilbutano, que apresentou a maior porcentagem de abundância relativa, 8,5%, seguido de outros hidrocarbonetos com abundância relativa entre 5 e 2% , como, 2,7,10-trimetildodecano, 2,2,6-trimetildecano, ciclopentano, 2,3,4-trimetildecano, n-pentano, 3,6-dimetilundecano, 4-metildodecano, 4,6- dimetildodecano, 3,6-dimetildecano e 1,2-dimetilbenzeno. Dois derivados de hidrocarbonetos halogenados também foram encontrados, sendo que o triclorofluormetano foi o majoritário com 5,7%, e um composto nitrogenado, a acetonitrila com 5,4%. Os compostos derivados do benzeno identificados foram: 1,2-dimetilbenzeno, etilbenzeno, metilbenzeno, 1-etil-3- metilbenzeno, 1-etil-3-metilbenzeno e 1,3,5-trimetilbenzeno que perfazem 6,6 % de abundância relativa. O mais abundante entre os aromáticos foi o 1,2-dimetilbenzeno (2,5%). Os resultados experimentais revelaram também a liberação de VOCs pelos materiais de acabamento interno dos veículos automotores recém-manufaturados.
Title in English
Evaluation of new vehicles cabin indoor air quality
Keywords in English
Carbonyl compounds
Indoor air quality
New car smell
Vehicle cabin air
VOC
Abstract in English
New motor vehicles cabins may be critical when considering the internal air quality, because concentrations of volatile organic compounds are at levels higher than the outdoors. Certain substances present in the cabin air can be harmful to humans according to their toxicity, mainly in the big cities. Assessment of the cabin air becomes necessary. In this study, cabin air quality was assessed and 7 popular new vehicles containing same interior trim materials were evaluated. A total of 46 volatile organic compounds were identified, with 14 of them were carbonylic compounds and 32 are aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and a nitrogenated compound. The carbonylic compounds were identified and quantified by the liquid chromatography and other VOCs only identified by GC-MS. Cabin air vehicles studied showed the following average concentrations found for carbonylic compounds ( µg/m3) in a descending order: formaldehyde (165.3), acetone (67.5); acetaldehyde (56.8); Isovaleraldehyde ( 40.8); propionaldehyde (21.1); butyraldehyde (17.9); crotonaldeído (14.9); hexaldeído (14.9) Valeraldehyde (9.8); dimetilbenzaldeído-2.5 (9.3); the - tolualdeído (8.4), p / m - tolualdeído (6.8); acrolein (4.2) and benzaldehyde (3.8). Concerning the other VOCs the following compounds were identified: methylbutane, which had the highest percentage of relative abundance, 8.5%, followed by other hydrocarbons with relative abundance between 5 and 2%, 2,7,10-trimetildodecano, 2.2 ,6- Trimetildecano, ciclopentano, 2,3,4-trimetildecano, n-pentane, 3.6-dimetilundecano, 4- metildodecano, dimetildodecano-4.6, 3.6 and 1.2-dimetildecano-dimetilbenzeno. Two halogenated hydrocarbons were also found, and triclorofluormetano had the biggest relative abundance percentage 5.7%, and a nitrogen compound, the acetonitrile with 5.4%. The benzene compounds identified were: 1.2-dimetilbenzeno, ethylbenzene, methylbenzene, 1- ethyl-3-methyl, ethyl-1-and 3-methyl 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene which comprise 6.6% of relative abundance. 1.2-dimetilbenzeno was the most abundant aromatic compound with relative abundance 2.5%. Results also showed that VOCs were released by studied vehicles interior trim materials.
 
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Publishing Date
2009-07-30
 
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