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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.46.2006.tde-21122006-160520
Document
Author
Full name
Angerson Nogueira do Nascimento
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano de (President)
Arruda, Marco Aurelio Zezzi
Bazito, Reinaldo Camino
Title in Portuguese
Explorando a espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica para a determinação simultânea de As, Co e Se em produtos petrolíferos
Keywords in Portuguese
Arsênico
Cobalto
Gasolina
Óleo lubrificante
Petróleo
Selênio
Abstract in Portuguese
Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos métodos analíticos para a determinação simultânea de As, Co e Se em petróleo, gasolina e óleo lubrificante por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica. As estratégias de preparo das amostras foram baseadas em emulsão de gasolina e petróleo e digestão ácida assistida por microondas para o óleo lubrificante. Os programas de aquecimento foram otimizados pela obtenção de curvas de pirólise e atomização de soluções analíticas de referência, emulsões e digeridos das amostras, na presença e ausência do modificador químico Pd + Mg. As emulsões de gasolina foram preparadas em tubos de vidro (Pirex®) com adição de Triton X-100, ácido nítrico e água Milli-Q. Na preparação das emulsões de petróleo foi necessário realizar a diluição da amostra com hexano, seguida da adição de Triton X-100, ácido nítrico e água Milli-Q. As emulsões foram sonicadas por 2 min. As melhores condições para a preparação das emulsões foram encontradas avaliando-se as intensidades dos sinais de absorbância de cada elemento em função da variação da quantidade das amostras, surfactante, teor ácido e solvente. As amostras de óleo lubrificante foram digeridas com ácido nítrico e peróxido de hidrogênio e analisadas após a diluição com água Milli-Q. As curvas analíticas de calibração foram preparadas em 2% (v/v) de HNO3 + 6% (v/v) de Triton X-100, 1% (v/v) de HNO3 + 7% (v/v) de Triton X-100 + 5% (v/v) de hexano, 0,1 % (v/v) de HNO3, para gasolina, petróleo e óleo lubrificante, respectivamente. Os limites de detecção (n=10) foram 7,2 µg L-1 para As, 1,0 µg L-1 para Co e 5,0 µg L-1 para Se em gasolina; 7,0 µg L-1 para As, 1,3 µg L-1 para Co e 5,7 µg L-1 para Se em petróleo; e 3,9 µg L-1 para As, 1,0 µg L-1 para Co e 4,0 µg L-1 para Se para óleo lubrificante. As recuperações obtidas foram de 94 a 112% para adição de 20 µg L-1 de As, 92 a 117% para 10 µg L-1 de Co e 94 a 129% para 20 µg L-1 de Se adicionados nas amostras de gasolina (n=5), petróleo (n=4) e óleo lubrificante (n=4).
Title in English
Simultaneous determination of As, Co and Se in gasoline, petroleum and lubricating oil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
Keywords in English
Arsenic
Cobalt
Gasoline
Lubricating oil
Petroleum
Selenium
Abstract in English
In this work analytical methods were developed for simultaneous determination of As, Co and Se in gasoline, petroleum and lubricating oil by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Strategies for the sample preparation were based on the emulsion for gasoline and petroleum and acid digestion using microwave oven for lubricating oil. The heating program optimizations were carried out using pyrolysis and atomization temperatures of analytical reference solutions, emulsions and digestate of sample solutions, in presence and absence of Pd + Mg as chemical modifiers. The gasoline emulsions were prepared in Pyrex® lass tubes by adding Triton X-100, nitric acid and Milli-Q water. For the petroleum emulsion preparation it was necessary the previous dissolution of sample with hexane, as well as Triton X-100, nitric acid and Milli-Q water addition. All emulsions were submitted to sonication for 2 minutes. The optimization of emulsifications were done by the evaluation of absorbance signals versus the variations of sample quantity, surfactant, nitric acid and solvent concentration. Lubricating oil samples were digested using a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analyzed after dilution with Milli-Q water. The calibration curves were prepared in 2% (v/v) HNO3 + 6% (v/v) Triton X-100, 1% (v/v) HNO3 + 7% (v/v) Triton X-100 + 5% (v/v) hexane, 0,1 % (v/v) de HNO3, for gasoline, petroleum and lubricating oil, respectively. The estimated detection limits (n=10) were 7.2 µg L-1 for As, 1.0 µg L-1 for Co, and 5.0 µg L-1 for Se in gasoline; 7.0 µg L-1 for As, 1.3 µg L-1 for Co, and 5.7 µg L-1 for Se in petroleum; and 3.9 µg L-1 for As, 1.0 µg L-1 for Co, and 4.0 µg L-1 for Se in lubricating oil. Five gasoline, four petroleum and four lubricating oil samples were analyzed and spiked with As (20 µg L-1), Co (10 µg L-1) and Se (20 µg L-1). The obtained recoveries were 94 to 112% for As, 92 to 117% for Co and 94 to 129% for Se in gasoline, petroleum and lubricating oil, respectively.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-01-24
 
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