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Mémoire de Maîtrise
DOI
10.11606/D.47.2014.tde-14052014-153224
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Flavio Karpinscki Gerab
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2014
Directeur
Jury
Hunziker, Maria Helena Leite (Président)
Banaco, Roberto Alves
Bueno, Jose Lino Oliveira
Titre en portugais
Ilusões temporais: um estudo sobre percepção de tempo em função de contingências de reforçamento e punição, a partir do relato verbal
Mots-clés en portugais
Controle instrucional
Percepção de tempo
Punição
Reforçamento
Relato verbal
Videogames
Resumé en portugais
As alteracoes na percepcao da passagem do tempo dos seres humanos tem sido investigadas em relacao as caracteristicas de diversos estimulos, condicoes corporais ou determinados tipos de tarefa. Porem, pouco se sabe sobre essas alteracoes como funcao das contingencias reforcadoras ou punitivas que controlam o comportamento. Este estudo visou investigar essa questao experimentalmente atraves do uso de um jogo virtual em computador simulando percursos de um avatar em um labirinto com 36 situacoes de escolha entre esquerda e direita. Pontos poderiam ser ganhos ou perdidos, sendo a pontuacao final convertida em titulos de nobreza hipoteticos dentro de um ranking previamente estabelecido. Tres contingencias foram manipuladas: sob Punicao (P) escolhas erradas entre direita e esquerda produziam perda de pontos; sob Reforcamento (R) escolhas certas produziam ganho de pontos; na condicao Controle (C) nao havia alteracao nos pontos. No Experimento 1 (n=60), tres grupos foram manipulados, cada um exposto a uma dessas contingencias; no Experimento 1A (n=40) novos participantes passaram pelas condicoes P e R, porem com uma alteracao na instrucao explicitando o nao perigo de morte do avatar; no Experimento 2 (n=6), cada participante foi exposto as tres condicoes experimentais, sendo manipulada a ordem de exposicao: C-P-R e C-R-P. Cada participante foi solicitado a estimar o tempo que permaneceu jogando: nos dois primeiros estudos essa solicitacao foi feita apenas apos o termino do jogo (estimativa retrospectiva); no ultimo os participantes foram informados ao inicio da primeira sessao experimental que essa solicitacao lhes seria feita ao final de cada sessao (estimativa prospectiva). Da mesma forma, ao final da sessao no Experimentos 1 e 1A, e ao final de cada sessao no Experimento 2, foi solicitada aos participantes uma avaliacao do jogo, com pontuacoes crescentes proporcionais ao grau de diversao em joga-lo. Os resultados mostraram que no Experimento 1 a condicao P produziu tempo de sessao maior que na condicao C e a condicao R produziu tempo de sessao menor do que na condicao C, sendo que no Experimento 1A as diferencas se reduziram; no Experimento 2 esse tempo foi sendo reduzido na sucessao das contingencias, independente da ordem utilizada. Nos experimentos 1 e 1A os participantes superestimaram a duracao da sessao de jogo na condicao R, e as condicoes C e P produziram estimativas proximas a duracao real. No Experimento 2 a condicao R tambem esteve associada a superestimativas na maioria dos participantes, porem sua relacao com os resultados obtidos em C e P varia entre os participantes. A magnitude da consequencia se mostrou uma variavel relevante no efeito da punicao, que foi menos acentuado no Experimento 1A. A apreciacao do jogo pelos sujeitos foi, no geral, mais positiva para a condicao P. Esses resultados apontam a interacao das contingencias operantes na percepcao temporal, sendo discutida tambem a aparente independencia entre o efeito operante da punicao e o relato verbal sobre a diversao inerente a atividade consequenciada
Titre en anglais
Temporal illusions: A study about time perception as a function of contingencies of reinforcement and punishment, stated through verbal report
Mots-clés en anglais
Instructional control
Punishment
Reinforcement
Time perception
Verbal report
Videogames
Resumé en anglais
Alterations in the perception of the passage of time in humans have been investigated in relation to the characteristics of several stimuli, bodily conditions and certain types of task. However, little is known about these alterations as a function of reinforcing or punishing contingencies that control behavior. This study aimed to investigate this question experimentally by using a virtual computer game simulating a maze in which an avatar was faced with 36 choice situations between left and right. Points could be won or lost, the final score being converted into hypothetical titles of nobility within a predetermined ranking. Three contingencies were manipulated: under Punishment (P) "wrong " choices between right and left produced loss of points; under Reinforcement (R) "right" choices produced gain points; under control condition (C) there was no change in points at all. In Experiment 1 (n=60), three groups were manipulated, each exposed to one of these contingencies, in Experiment 1A (n=40) new participants were exposed to the conditions P and R, but with a statement explaining that there was no chance of avatar's death during the game, in Experiment 2 (n=6), each participant was exposed to three experimental conditions, having the sequence of exposure being manipulated: C-P-R for half the participants and C-R-P for the other half. Each participant was asked to estimate the duration spent playing: in the first two studies this request was made just after the end of the game (retrospective estimation), at the last study participants were informed at the beginning of the first experimental session that this request would be made to them end of each session (prospective estimate). Similarly, at the end of the session in Experiments 1 and 1A, and at the end of each session in Experiment 2, participants were requested a review of the game, with scores increasing with the degree of fun playing it. The results showed that in Experiment 1 the condition P produced greater session length than the condition C, and condition R produced lesser session length than condition C, whereas in Experiment 1A differences are reduced; in Experiment 2 session length was being reduced along the succession of contingencies, regardless of the sequence used. In Experiments 1 and 1A participants overestimated the duration of the game session under the condition R, and C and P conditions produced close to the actual duration estimates. In Experiment 2 the R condition was also associated with overestimation in the majority of participants, however its relationship to the results obtained in C and P varies between participants. The magnitude of the result proved to be a relevant variable in the effect of punishment, which was less pronounced in Experiment 1A. The enjoyment of the game by the subjects was generally more positive for condition P. These results indicate the interaction of operant contingencies on time perception, and also discussed the apparent independence between the operant effect of punishment and verbal report about the fun inherent in activity that was punished
 
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Date de Publication
2014-06-11
 
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