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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.47.2009.tde-22022010-110943
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Libardi Galesi
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Mijares, Miriam Garcia (President)
Banaco, Roberto Alves
Tomanari, Gerson Aparecido Yukio
Title in Portuguese
Análise comportamental do modelo animal de recaída cue-induced
Keywords in Portuguese
Droga (Abuso)
Estímulo condicionado
Modelos animais
Recidiva
Reforço
Abstract in Portuguese
A recaída ao uso de drogas é um dos principais obstáculos para o tratamento do adicto. Um dos modelos animais mais utilizados para estudar a recaída no laboratório é o chamado de cue-induced. Embora esse modelo tenha se mostrado útil para o estudo de processos neurofisiológicos envolvidos na recaída, seu valor para a análise do controle de estímulos ambientais na dependência tem sido limitado por não distinguir a função dos estímulos discriminativos e dos reforçadores condicionados que controlam a reinstalação da resposta que foi reforçada por droga. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os controles estabelecidos sobre as respostas de pressão à barra de ratos submetidos ao procedimento cue-induced. Foram realizados três experimentos. No Experimento 1, os animais passaram pelas três fases experimentais que caracterizam esse modelo. Na primeira fase, a resposta de pressão à barra foi treina em dois componentes distintos. Em um deles, as respostas emitidas na presença de um odor de laranja (SD1) tiveram como conseqüência a apresentação de um estímulo luminoso (Sr1) e liberação de uma solução de etanol (grupo ET) ou de sacarose (grupo SAC). Enquanto na outra, pressões à barra na presença de um odor de erva-doce (SD2) tiveram como conseqüência a apresentação um estímulo sonoro (Sr2) e liberação de água. Na segunda fase, foram realizadas sessões de extinção na ausência dos estímulos utilizados no treino. Na terceira fase os estímulos discriminativos e reforçadores condicionados foram reintroduzidos, mas as respostas de pressão à barra não foram reforçadas por etanol, sacarose ou água. Finalizado o procedimento padrão, foram realizados testes adicionais, nos quais cada estímulo utilizado no treino foi apresentado separadamente. O procedimento do Experimento 2 foi similar ao do Experimento 1, porém foram controladas duas variáveis irrelevantes para o modelo, mas associadas com as contingências experimentais: a maravalha da bandeja da caixa experimental e o acionamento do bebedouro. No Experimento 3, foi adicionada sacarose à solução de etanol e a água. Os resultados dos Experimentos 1 e 2 mostraram que Sr1 foi efetivo em reinstalar a resposta de pressão à barra nos testes de reinstalação realizados, enquanto SD1 foi inconsistente em reinstalar essa resposta. A apresentação de SD2 e Sr2 não reinstalou a resposta. Os dados obtidos no Experimento 3 foram inconclusivos quanto ao controle exercido pelos estímulos olfativos, luminosos e sonoros. Os resultados parecem sugerir que o modelo animal cue-induced, tipicamente usado para estabelecer linhas de base de controle discriminativo sobre a auto-administração de drogas, pode não ser adequado para tal finalidade. No entanto, ainda são necessários refinamentos experimentais para a obtenção de resultados mais acurados.
Title in English
Behavior analysis of the cue-induced animal model of relapse
Keywords in English
Animal models
Conditioned stimulus
Drug abuse
Recurrence
Reinforcement
Abstract in English
The relapse into drug use is one of the key obstacles for addict treatment. One of the animal models most used for relapse studies in laboratory is the so called cue-induced. Even though this model has been proven to be useful for neurophysiologic processes related to relapse, its value for analyzing environment stimulus control on addiction is considered to be limited because it does not distinguish the function of discriminative stimulus and of conditioned reinforcer which control the reinstatement of the response that was reinforced by the use of drugs. The main objective of this study was to analyze the established controls over the lever pressure responses of rats submitted to the cue-induced procedure. They were subjected to three different experiments. On the first one the animals were exposed to the three different experimental stages that characterize a cue-induced procedure. At the first experimental phase, lever press response was trained over two different components. In one of them, the response to an orange odor (SD1) had as a consequence the appearance of a luminous stimulus (Sr1) and the release of ethanol (ET group) or a sucrose solution (SAC group). While in the other one, lever press in the presence of a anise odor had as a consequence the appearance of a sonorous stimulus accompanied by water release. At the second phase, there were conducted extinction sessions in the lack of the stimuli used on the training phase. And finally, at the third phase, the discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcer were reintroduced. Nevertheless, the lever press response was not reinforced by ethanol, sucrose or water. By the time the standard procedure was over, additional tests were run, where each stimuli used on the training phase were presented to the rats separately. The second experiment procedure was similar to the one employed at the first experiment, however two irrelevant variables for the model were controlled for, but these were associated with the experimental contingencies: the sawdust on the experimental box trail and the drinking fountain when put into action. At the third experiment, sucrose was added to the ethanol solution and also to the water. The results from the two first experiments showed that Sr1 was effective in reinstate the lever pressure response verified at the reinstatement tests, whereas SD1 was not successful in doing so. Neither the introduction of SD2 nor Sr2 reinstate the response. The data obtained by Experiment 3 was not conclusive in regards to the control imposed by the olfactory, luminous and sonorous stimuli. The results suggest that the cue-induced procedure, typically used to establish baselines for discriminative control over drugs self-administration, may not be in fact the most suitable one for this purpose. Nonetheless, there is still a need to refine the experiment in order to reach more accurate and conclusive results.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-02-26
 
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