• JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
 
  Bookmark and Share
 
 
Mémoire de Maîtrise
DOI
10.11606/D.47.2006.tde-06022007-175231
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Willian Seiji Korim
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2006
Directeur
Jury
Cravo, Sergio Luiz Domingues (Président)
Canteras, Newton Sabino
Paula, Patricia Maria de
Titre en portugais
Vias centrais purinérgicas envolvidas na regulação do fluxo sangüíneo muscular durante os comportamentos de alerta e defesa
Mots-clés en portugais
alerta (fisiologia)
fluxo sanguíneo regional
hipotálamo
neurotransmissores
stress
vasodilatação
Resumé en portugais
As reações de alerta e defesa compreendem ajustes cardiovasculares proporcionando um fluxo sangüíneo muscular adequado nas situações de "luta ou fuga". As vias centrais e os possíveis neurotransmissores envolvidos nestes ajustes permanecem ainda, em grande parte, desconhecidas. Neste estudo buscamos analisar a participação da neurotransmissão purinérgica e glutamatérgica no núcleo do trato solitário (NTS) na gênese da vasodilatação muscular durante reações de defesa e o papel das vias glutamatérgicas do NTS para o núcleo rostroventrolateral (RVL) nestas respostas. Ratos Wistar machos (250-350 g) foram anestesiados (uretana 600 mg/kg + alpha-chloralose 50 mg/kg, i.v.), paralisados (d-Tubocurarina, 0,5 mg/kg, i.v.) e ventilados artificialmente. Registramos a pressão arterial média (PAM), a freqüência cardíaca (FC) e o fluxo sangüíneo dos membros posteriores (FSMP). A condutância vascular dos membros posteriores (CVMP) foi determinada como a razão FSMP/PAM e expressa como percentagem do valor basal. A estimulação elétrica (EE; 150 MuA; 0,6 ms; 100 Hz; 6 s) do hipotálamo lateral provocou hipertensão, taquicardia e vasodilatação nos membros posteriores. A microinjeção bilateral de suramin (100 pmol/50 nl), um antagonista não específico de receptores P2x no NTS, reduziu a vasodilatação nos membros posteriores durante a EE do hipotálamo (173±19,0 vs 28±14,1% do basal) sem alterar as respostas pressora e taquicárdica. A microinjeção do agonista P2x alpha, beta-methylene ATP (100 pmol/50 nl) no NTS produziu hipotensão, bradicardia e vasodilatação dos membros posteriores. A microinjeção de suramin (100 pmol/50 nl) bloqueou a vasodilatação muscular (76±15,2 vs 9±2,1% do basal) e a hipotensão (-47±4,5 vs -6±2,0 mmHg). A microinjeção de ácido quinurênico (4 nmol/50 nl), um antagonista glutamatérgico ionotrópico não seletivo no NTS bloqueou, de forma semelhante ao suramin, a vasodilatação durante a EE do hipotálamo (134±21,5 vs 27±12,7% do basal) sem alterar as respostas pressora ou taquicárdica. O bloqueio bilateral no RVL com microinjeções de ácido quinurênico reduziu intensamente a resposta hipotensora (-60±6,1 vs -9±3,7 mmHg) e vasodilatadora (126±16,9 vs 17±4,6% do basal) provocada pelas microinjeções de alpha, beta-methylene ATP (100 pmol/50 nl) no NTS. O agonista purinérgico A2a, CGS21680 (20 pmol/50 nl) no NTS, evocou hipotensão, bradicardia e vasodilatação muscular de longa duração. O bloqueio do RVL com ácido quinurênico (4 nmol/50 nl) reduziu a hipotensão (- 41±4,7 vs -7±1,9 mmHg), a bradicardia (-33±9 vs -10±3,1 bpm) e a vasodilatação nos membros posteriores (81±5,6 vs 8±1,5% do basal). Estes resultados sugerem que a vasodilatação muscular nas repostas de defesa depende da ativação de receptores P2x e receptores glutamatérgicos no NTS. Ajustes cardiovasculares por ativação dos receptores purinérgicos P2x e A2a no NTS provocam vasodilatação muscular que depende da liberação de glutamato no RVL, provavelmente ativando interneurônios inibitórios ali presentes.
Titre en anglais
Purinergic central pathways involved in the muscle blood flow regulation during alerting defense behaviours.
Mots-clés en anglais
alertness
hypothalamus
neurotransmitters
regional blood flow
stress
vasodilatation
Resumé en anglais
The electrical stimulation (ES) of the hypothalamus in the rat produces a well- defined pattern of cardiovascular adjustments including hypertension, tachycardia and skeletal muscle vasodilation. These hemodynamic responses can also be observed in natural conditions during fight and/or flight behaviors. However the neural pathways and possible neurotransmitters involved remain largely unknown. In this study we sought to determine the role of purinergic and glutamatergic receptors into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the cardiovascular responses induced by hypothalamic ES, also we aimed to analyze the role of glutamatergic neural pathways from the NTS to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in these responses. Male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were anesthetized (urethane 600 mg/kg + alpha-chloralose 50 mg/kg, iv), paralyzed (d-tubocurarine 0.5 mg/kg, iv) and artificially ventilated. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and hindquarter blood flow (HQBF) were recorded. Hindquarter vascular conductance (HQVC) was calculated as the ratio HQBF/MAP and expressed as percentage of baseline. Hypothalamic ES (6s trains, 0.6 ms square pulses, 100 Hz, 150 MuA) evoked a transitory hypertension, tachycardia and hindlimb muscle vasodilation. After bilateral microinjections of suramin (100 pmol /50 nl), a non-specific P2x receptor antagonist, into the NTS the hindlimb vasodilation was reduced (173±19.0 vs 28±14.1% of baseline), even so the transitory hypertension and tachycardia remained unchanged. A similar vasodilation reduction (134±21.5 vs 27±12.7% of baseline) was observed after microinjections of kynurenic acid bilaterally at the same NTS sites. Microinjections of the P2x receptor agonist alpha, beta-methylene ATP (100 pmol/50 nl) into the NTS produced hypotension, bradycardia and hindlimb muscle vasodilation. Bilateral microinjections of suramin at the same NTS site reduced the hypotension (-47±4.5 vs -6±2.0 mmHg) and the vasodilation (76±15.2 vs 9±2.1% of baseline). After bilateral microinjection of kynurenic acid into the RVLM, both hypotension (-60±6.1 vs -9±3.7 mmHg) and the vasodilation response (126±16.9 vs 17±4.6% of baseline) induced by alpha, beta- methylene ATP into the NTS were reduced. The A2a agonist CGS21680 (20 pmol/50 nl) into the NTS produced a long-lasting hypotension, bradycardia and hindlimb vasodilation. Bilateral RVLM glutamatergic blockade reduced the hypotension (-41±4.7 vs -7±1.9 mmHg), the tachycardia (-33±9.0 vs -10±3.1 bpm) and the muscle vasodilation (81±5.6 vs 8±1.5% of baseline) when CGS21680 was injected into the NTS. Therefore the results suggest that in alerting defense reaction, hindquarter vasodilation is mediated by NTS P2x and also by glutamatergic receptors into the intermediate NTS. Cardiovascular responses evoked by either P2x or A2a receptors stimulation in the NTS are mediated by glutamatergic synapses into the RVLM probably through activation of inhibitory interneurones in this area.
 
AVERTISSEMENT - Regarde ce document est soumise à votre acceptation des conditions d'utilisation suivantes:
Ce document est uniquement à des fins privées pour la recherche et l'enseignement. Reproduction à des fins commerciales est interdite. Cette droits couvrent l'ensemble des données sur ce document ainsi que son contenu. Toute utilisation ou de copie de ce document, en totalité ou en partie, doit inclure le nom de l'auteur.
willian.pdf (2.81 Mbytes)
Date de Publication
2008-01-31
 
AVERTISSEMENT: Apprenez ce que sont des œvres dérivées cliquant ici.
Tous droits de la thèse/dissertation appartiennent aux auteurs
Centro de Informática de São Carlos
Bibliothèque Numérique de Thèses et Mémoires de l'USP. Copyright © 2001-2019. Tous droits réservés.