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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2017.tde-23082017-113800
Document
Author
Full name
Celso Ricardo Bregalda Neves
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Casella, Ivan Benaduce (President)
Estenssoro, André Echaime Vallentsits
Silva, Jose Carlos Costa Baptista da
Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun
Title in Portuguese
Resultados em longo prazo do tratamento de pacientes com suboclusão carotídea com sinal do barbante
Keywords in Portuguese
Acidente vascular cerebral
Angioplastia
Ataque isquêmico transitório
Aterosclerose
Estenose das carótidas
Tomografia
Ultrassonografia
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes com suboclusão da carótida com sinal do barbante podem ser incorretamente classificados como portadores de oclusão total, por meio de exames não invasivos. A história natural e o tratamento desta condição são controversos na literatura médica. OBJETIVOS: 1. Avaliar a evolução, em longo prazo, de pacientes com suboclusão carotídea com sinal do barbante assintomáticos, quando submetidos a tratamento clínico exclusivo; 2. Avaliar os resultados imediatos e em longo prazo do tratamento intervencionista de pacientes com suboclusão carotídea com sinal do barbante sintomáticos. MÉTODOS: Foram inclusos 195 pacientes que apresentavam ultrassonografia Doppler convencional prévia com oclusão completa de, pelo menos, uma das carótidas internas, totalizando 204 carótidas ocluídas (9 oclusões bilaterais). Após a realização de angiotomografia computadorizada e ultrassonografia com contraste de microbolhas, 46 pacientes (46 carótidas) apresentavam, na realidade, placas suboclusivas com fluxo filiforme na carótida interna, sendo acompanhados prospectivamente. Desses, 22 eram assintomáticos e foram tratados clinicamente; e 24 eram sintomáticos e foram submetidos à tentativa de angioplastia com implante de stent. O seguimento foi executado com consultas periódicas e ultrassonografia Doppler realizadas com 14 dias, 3 meses, 6 meses e, posteriormente, a cada 12 meses, após a intervenção. Angiotomografia computadorizada era realizada em até 2 meses após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: O seguimento médio foi de 63,9 meses. Os pacientes assintomáticos tiveram sobrevida cumulativa de 81,8%, sem quaisquer eventos neurológicos em 60 meses. Os pacientes sintomáticos tiveram taxa de sucesso no implante de stent de 79,1% (19 de 24). Não houve isquemia miocárdica ou morte em até 30 dias após a cirurgia. Um dos pacientes com sucesso no implante do stent apresentou paresia de membro superior com recuperação em 3 meses, portanto, a taxa de desfecho primário (acidente vascular cerebral, infarto agudo do miocárdio e morte), foi 4,2%. A taxa de perviedade para os procedimentos com sucesso foi de 89,4%, em 60 meses. Os pacientes sintomáticos com sucesso na angioplastia tiveram taxa de sobrevida livre de eventos neurológicos de 84,2%, em 60 meses, com sobrevida total de 89,4% nesse período. Todos os 5 pacientes sintomáticos nos quais a angioplastia não foi factível evoluíram com eventos neurológicos no acompanhamento, com sobrevida de 40,0%, em 60 meses. CONCLUSÕES: 1. Pacientes com suboclusão carotídea com sinal do barbante assintomáticos são favorecidos, em longo prazo, pelo tratamento medicamentoso exclusivo. 2. Pacientes com suboclusão carotídea com sinal do barbante sintomáticos beneficiam-se, em longo prazo, da angioplastia com implante de stent
Title in English
Long-term results on treatment of patients with carotid near-occlusion with string sign
Keywords in English
Angioplasty
Atherosclerosis
Carotid stenosis
Stroke
Tomography
Transient ischemic attack
Ultrasonography
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: Patients with carotid near-occlusion with string sign may be incorrectly classified as total occlusion through non-invasive tests. The natural history and treatment of such condition are controversial in medical literature. OBJECTIVES: 1. Monitor the natural long-term outcome of asymptomatic patients with carotid near-occlusion with string sign treated medically; 2. Evaluate the short and long-term results of interventional treatment in symptomatic patients with carotid near-occlusion with string sign. METHODS: 195 patients, who had previous Doppler ultrasound with complete occlusion of at least one internal carotid, were included. 9 had bilateral occlusion, totaling 204 occluded arteries. After conducting computed tomography angiography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, 46 patients (46 carotid arteries) had near-occlusion with string sign and were prospectively analyzed. Asymptomatic patients (22) received best medical therapy while symptomatic individuals (24) were referred to carotid artery stenting. After the procedure follow-up was made with clinical surveillance and Doppler ultrasound performed at 14 days, 3 months, 6 months and then every 12 months thereafter. A computed tomographic angiography was performed within 2 months. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was of 63.9 months. Asymptomatic patients had a cumulative survival rate of 81.8%, in 60 months, without any neurologic events. Symptomatic patients had intraoperative success rate of 79.1% (19/24 procedures). No intraoperative or 30-day events of myocardial infarction or death occurred. One of the successful carotid artery stenting patients evolved with a mild upper limb monoparesis, with total recovery in 3 months. The rate of primary end point (stroke, myocardial infarction or death) was 4.2%. Cumulative patency rate for the 19 successful procedures was 89.4%, in 60 months. Symptomatic individuals with successful angioplasty had a neurologic event-free survival rate of 84.2%, in 60 months, with overall survival rate of 89.4%, in the same period. All 5 symptomatic patients to whom string angioplasty procedure was not feasible evolved with neurological events, with a cumulative survival rate of 40.0%, in 60 months. CONCLUSIONS: 1. Asymptomatic patients with carotid near-occlusion with string sign evolve well with best medical therapy in long-term follow-up; 2. Symptomatic patients with carotid near-occlusion with string sign have good outcomes with carotid artery stenting in long-term follow-up
 
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Publishing Date
2017-08-23
 
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