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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2006.tde-10082010-115156
Document
Author
Full name
Najara Maria Procópio Andrade
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Focaccia, Roberto (President)
Telles Filho, Flávio de Queiroz
Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai
Title in Portuguese
Hipertensão intracraniana na meningoencefalite criptocócica em pacientes soropositivos para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana: estudo de uma série de casos
Keywords in Portuguese
Estudos de coortes
Hipertensão intracraniana
Meningite criptocócica
Síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida
Abstract in Portuguese
Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1) Descrever e analisar as principais características da hipertensão intracraniana em pacientes com meningoencefalite criptocócica e aids; (2) Descrever e comparar as características clínicas, epidemiológicas, laboratoriais e evolutivas associadas à presença de hipertensão intracraniana em pacientes com meningoencefalite criptocócica e aids; (3) Identificar fatores associados à má evolução em pacientes com meningoencefalite criptocócica e aids. Este é um estudo de coorte prospectivo que avaliou 34 pacientes soropositivos para o HIV internados no Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas no período de janeiro de 2003 a março de 2004. Definição de caso: paciente com sinais e sintomas de meningoencefalite com cultura de líquor positiva para Cryptococcus neoformans. Hipertensão intracraniana foi definida como pressão liquórica inicial >= 200 mmH2O. Todos os pacientes receberam tratamento inicial com anfotericina B e aqueles casos que apresentaram hipertensão intracraniana foram submetidos a um algoritmo específico de punções diárias de alívio ou shunt. Os pacientes foram analisados durante o período de internação. Vinte e seis pacientes eram do gênero masculino (76,5%); com média de idade de 35,4 anos; com imunodepressão grave (média de cels T CD4+ = 35,4 anos). Sete (20,6%) pacientes souberam do diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV a partir da criptococose, que foi a primeira doença definidora de aids em 61,8% dos casos. Hemocultura foi positiva em 52,9% dos casos. Hipertensão intracraniana ocorreu em 20 (58,9%) pacientes à admissão e em 25 (73,52%) em qualquer momento da evolução clínica. Os fatores associados estatisticamente à ocorrência de hipertensão intracraniana foram: turvação visual (P=0,02), alteração de nervos cranianos (P=0,03), e número de células fungicas no LCR > 100 células/ mm3 à admissão (P=0,036). As punções diárias de alívio foram eficazes em controlar a hipertensão intracraniana em 21 (62%) casos e shunt foi realizado em seis casos. A mortalidade geral foi de 26,5%, porém na maioria dos casos a causa do óbito foi atribuída à infecção hospitalar. Os fatores estatisticamente associados à evolução para óbito foram: hipertensão arterial sistêmica (P=0,048), coma (P=0,048), déficit motor (P=0,014) e número elevado de células fúngicas no líquido cefalorraquidiano (P=0,030).
Title in English
Elevated intracranial pressure in HIV patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis: a case series
Keywords in English
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Cohort studies
Cryptococcal meningitis
Intracranial hypertension
Abstract in English
The objectives of this study were: (1) To describe and analyze the main characteristics associated to elevated intracranial pressure in patients with Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and aids. (2) To describe and to compare clinical, epidemiologic, laboratorial and outcome characteristics associated to elevated intracranial pressure in patients with Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and aids (3) To identify associated factors to poor outcome in patients with Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and aids This is a prospective cohort study that analyzed 34 HIV infected patients hospitalized at Emilio Ribas Institute during the period of January 2003 to March 2004. Case definition: Patients with clinical manifestations of meningoencephalitis and isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from Cerebrospinal Fluid. Elevated intracranial pressure was defined as cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure >= 200 mmH2O. All patients were initially treated with amphotericin B and that who presented with elevated intracranial pressure were submitted to a specific algorithm of repeated lumbar drainage or shunt. The patients were followed during hospitalization period. Results: Twenty six patients were male (76.5%); with mean of age of 35, 4 years. The means of T CD4 count was 28,5 cell/ . Cryptococcosis led to diagnosis of HIV infection in 20,6% of patients, whereas it was the aids-defining disease in 61,8% of patients. Blood cultures were positive in 52,9% of cases. Elevated intracranial pressure was presented in 20 (58,9%) patients at admission, and in 25 patients (73,52%) during evolution. Elevated intracranial pressure was associated to visual turvation (P=0,02), cranial nerve abnormalities (P=0,03) and number of fungal cells ³ 100 cells/ mm3 at admission (P=0,036). Lumbar puncture was efficient to control elevated intracranial pressure in 21 (62%) cases and six patients were submitted to shunt. Overall mortality was 26,5%. Factors associated to death were: arterial hypertension (P=0,048), coma (P=0,048), motor deficits (P=0,014) and raised number of fungal cells in cerebrospinal fluid at admission (P=0,03).
 
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Publishing Date
2010-08-11
 
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