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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2013.tde-18122013-152336
Document
Author
Full name
Joana Bisol Balardin
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Miotto, Eliane Correa (President)
Jaeger, Antonio
Amaro Júnior, Edson
Bromberg, Elke
Goulart, Maria Teresa Carthery
Title in Portuguese
Análise dos correlatos neurais associados ao uso de estratégias de memória no comprometimento cognitivo leve: avaliação por ressonância magnética funcional
Keywords in Portuguese
Cognição
Comprometimento cognitivo leve
Envelhecimento
Memória
Neuroimagem funcional
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: Déficits de memória episódica constituem o marcador cognitivo mais frequente em pacientes com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve (CCL).Estudos prévios mostram que déficits de memória episódica podem ser minimizados nestes pacientes por intervenções comportamentais. Entretanto, os mecanismos cerebrais envolvidos nos efeitos do treino cognitivo ainda são pouco explorados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o correlato neural por ressonância magnética funcional de um treino breve de memória em pacientes com CCL e compará-los com os achados em idosos saudáveis. Foram avaliados 18 pacientes com CCL e 19 idosos controles com a utilização de ressonância magnética funcional (RMf) em uma tarefa de codificação de listas de palavras com diferentes graus de relação semântica antes e após uma sessão de treino de estratégias de memória. Na sessão pré-treino, os participantes foram instruídos a memorizar as palavras durante a sessão de RMf sem qualquer orientação sobre o uso de estratégias de codificação. Após um treino breve no qual estratégias específicas de organização e agrupamento semântico foram exercitadas, os sujeitos foram reconduzidos ao aparelho de ressonância magnética e realizaram a sessão pós-treino, na qual foram instruídos a utilizar a estratégia treinada durante o paradigma de codificação de palavras. Os resultados dos exames de ressonância magnética funcional foram processados e analisados com o programa FSL versão 4.1. Ambos os grupos apresentaram aumento no número de palavras evocadas associado ao uso da estratégia treinada. Em ambos os grupos foi observado um aumento do sinal BOLD após o treino em regiões do córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo e do córtex parietal bilateral. No grupo de idosos controles, entretanto, foi observada também uma redução da ativação em regiões do córtex parietal posterior esquerdo e cíngulo posterior bilateral, do córtex pré-frontal medial e cíngulo anterior direitos, do lóbulo parietal inferior e do córtex temporal superior direitos, do córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral direiro e do córtex óribito-frontal bilateral. A interação grupo x tempo foi significativa em áreas do córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral e ventromedial direitos. Estes resultado indicam que existem diferenças no recrutamento de regiões pré-frontais em resposta ao uso de estratégias de codificação em paradigmas de codificação de palavras entre pacientes com CCL e idosos cognitivamente saudáveis
Title in English
Functional neural correlates of strategic memory processes in Mild Cognitive Impairment: an fMRI study
Keywords in English
Aging
Cognition
Functional neuroimaging
Memory
Mild cognitive impairment
Abstract in English
The present studyinvestigated the effects of different applicationsof verbal learning strategies duringepisodicmemory encoding in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (n=18) and normal controls (n=17) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).The main goal of this study was to verify whether externally guided increases in verbal learning strategy application during episodic memory encoding modulate brain activity in memory-related networks in the same level in MCI as in controls. Participantswerescanned twice, using a word-list encoding fMRI paradigm.In the first session, self-initiated encoding strategies were used to intentionally memorize words during encoding. In the second session, participants received an explicit instruction to apply a semantic organization strategy (i.e. semantic clustering)to perform the task. The fMRI word list learning paradigm consisted of alternating blocks of encoding and resting baseline conditions. To perform the spontaneous fMRI session, participants were not instructed about the semantic organization of the words in the lists beforehand or given any practice with related lists. Therefore, any grouping by category observed in the subsequent free recall at the end of this fMRI acquisition was presumed to be self-initiated by the subject. At the end of the spontaneous session, each subject received a brief period of guidance or instructions to apply semantic strategies and organize words in terms of semantic categories during encoding, using a new set of word lists. Immediately after practicing the application of the strategy, participants were scanned again using the same type of paradigm as in the first session, except for the use of new set of word lists and the explicit instruction to apply semantic clustering.Free recall and strategic index scores were assessedafter each session. fMRI brain activation and deactivation during encoding of word lists in memory-related networks were examined across sessions. Results from the fMRI analysis revealed that after the explicit orientation to apply the verbal learning strategy, greater recruitment of frontoparietal network regions were observed in both MCI and control groups in relation to the unconstrained encoding condition. Group-differences in functional deactivations, however, were observed in the medial prefrontal (mPFC) cortex and in the right superior frontal gyrus, two critical nodes of the default mode network, related to the absence of modulation in the activity of the mPFC, along with a lack of suppression of the right superior frontal gyrus in MCI, in response to the increased use of the encoding strategy. A different association between improvement in strategy use and session-related changes in activation of the medial orbitalfrontal cortex between groups was also confirmed. That is, improvements in strategy use in controls contribute to a great extent in the amount of deactivation in OFC, whereas in patients, only a small portion of the increase in activation in this region was predicted by increases in strategy application
 
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Publishing Date
2014-01-02
 
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