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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2012.tde-07022013-120827
Document
Author
Full name
Mayra de Barros Dorna
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe (President)
Adde, Fabiola Villac
Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo
Title in Portuguese
Alterações tomográficas e funcionais pulmonares em pacientes com hipogamaglobulinemia primária em reposição de imunoglobulina humana
Keywords in Portuguese
Bronquiectasia
Espirometria
Imunoglobulinas
Pneumopatias
Síndromes de imunodeficiência
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: A Agamaglobulinemia, a Imunodeficiência Comum Variável (IDCV) e a Síndrome Hiper IgM (SHIGM) são imunodeficiência primárias predominantemente humorais que se beneficiam da reposição de imunoglobulina humana, com redução da morbimortalidade. No entanto, apesar da reposição adequada de imunoglobulina, complicações pulmonares podem ocorrer, influenciando o prognóstico destes pacientes. Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi descrever as alterações morfológicas e funcionais pulmonares em pacientes com hipogamaglobulinemia primária em tratamento com reposição de imunoglobulina humana. Métodos: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes (agamaglobulinemia n=14; IDCV n=9; SHIGM n=7) que receberam imunoglobulina e antibioticoterapia profilática regularmente. A avaliação utilizou dados dos prontuários sobre o início e a evolução da doença, bem como dados de espirometria e tomografia computadorizada de tórax. O escore de Bhalla foi aplicado à tomografia mais recente de cada um dos pacientes para correlacionar as alterações tomográficas pulmonares com os dados clínicos, resultados das espirometrias e ocorrência de processos infecciosos sino-pulmonares após o início da reposição de imunoglobulina. Para as análises estatísticas utilizou-se o programa SPSS 13.0, e valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. As variáveis nominais foram comparadas através do teste de Fisher e as contínuas, através de testes não paramétricos (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis e Wilcoxon). Para as correlações do escore de Bhalla com as demais variáveis foi utilizado o coeficiente de Spearman. Resultados: Houve diminuição na frequência de pneumonias (p<0,001) e aumento na frequência de sinusites (p<0,001) após o início da reposição de imunoglobulina. Distúrbios ventilatórios foram evidenciados em 14 dos 23 pacientes que puderam realizaram espirometria (7 obstrutivos, 5 restritivos e 2 inconclusivos). Pacientes com bronquiectasias ao diagnóstico e aqueles à primeira avaliação tomográfica apresentaram mediana de idade mais elevada ao diagnóstico (p=0,015 e p=0,001, respectivamente) e tempo mais prolongado entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico que aqueles sem bronquiectasias (p=0,010 e p=0,001, respectivamente). Sete pacientes desenvolveram bronquiectasias durante o tratamento. Pacientes com bronquiectasias à avaliação final apresentaram maior frequência de sinusites antes do início da reposição de imunoglobulina que aqueles sem bronquiectasias (p=0,010). Houve correlação estatisticamente significante do escore de Bhalla com VEF1 pré e pós-broncodilatador (r= -0,778 e r= -0,837, respectivamente), CVF (r= -0,773), FEF25-75% (r= -0,571) e com a frequência de pneumonias após o início do tratamento (r= 0,561). Conclusões: O tratamento com reposição regular de imunoglobulina e antibioticoterapia profilática reduziu a frequência e gravidade das infecções pulmonares, porém não evitou a ocorrência de sinusites, o aparecimento de bronquiectasias nem de outras alterações morfológicas e funcionais pulmonares
Title in English
Pulmonary tomographic and functional abnormalities in patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia receiving human immunoglobulin replacement
Keywords in English
Bronchiectasis
Immunoglobulins
Immunologic deficiency syndromes
Lung diseases
Spirometry
Abstract in English
Introduction: Agammaglobulinemia, Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) and Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM) are predominantly antibody deficiencies that benefit from immunoglobulin replacement therapy, with reduction of their morbidity and mortality. Despite regular immunoglobulin replacement, pulmonary complications may occur in those patients, affecting their prognosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe tomographic and functional pulmonary abnormalities in patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Methods: Thirty patients (agammaglobulinemia n=14, CVID n=9, HIGM n=7) receiving antimicrobial prophylaxis and regular immunoglobulin infusions were evaluated. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain data concerning the onset and evolution of the disease and the results of spirometry and computed tomography of the chest. Bhalla score was applied to the most recent tomography of each patient to correlate tomographic pulmonary abnormalities with clinical data, spirometry results and the occurrence of sinusal and pulmonary infections after the onset of the immunoglobulin replacement. Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 13.0 and p values < 0.05 were interpreted as statistically significant. Nominal variables were tested using Fisher´s exact test and continuous variables were tested using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis e Wilcoxon). Spearman coefficient was used to correlate Bhalla score with the other variables. Results: The frequency of pneumonias decreased (p<0.001) and the frequency of sinusitis increased (p<0.001) after the onset of immunoglobulin replacement. Pulmonary function was abnormal in 14 of 23 patients (7 obstructive, 5 restrictive, 2 inconclusive). Patients with bronchiectasis at diagnosis and those with bronchiectasis at the first tomographic evaluation presented higher median age at diagnosis (p=0.015 and p=0.001, respectively) and longer duration between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis than those without bronchiectasis (p=0.010 e p=0.001, respectively). Seven patients developed bronchiectasis during treatment. Patients with bronchiectasis at the last tomographic evaluation presented a higher frequency of sinusitis before therapy onset than those without bronchiectasis (p=0.001). Statistically significant correlation was found between Bhalla score and pre and post bronchodilator FEV1 (r= -0.778 and r= -0.837, respectively), FVC (r= -0.773) and FEF25-75% (r= -0.571) and between Bhalla score and the frequency of pneumonias after the onset of immunoglobulin replacement therapy (r=0.561). Conclusions: Immunoglobulin replacement therapy and antimicrobial prophylaxis reduced the frequency and severity of pulmonary infections but did not prevent the occurrence of sinusitis, the development of bronchiectasis or other morphological and functional pulmonary abnormalities
 
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Publishing Date
2013-02-14
 
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