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Thèse de Doctorat
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2009.tde-28082009-134914
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Chang Yin Chia
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2009
Directeur
Jury
Falcão, Mário Cícero (Président)
Ceccon, Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero
Gallacci, Clery Bernardi
Tannuri, Uenis
Valente, Marcelo
Titre en portugais
Estudo da maturação da resposta vascular da artéria mesentérica superior em recém-nascidos prematuros através do dopplerfluxometria
Mots-clés en portugais
Artéria mesentérica superior/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Artéria mesentérica superior/ultra-sonografia
Enterocolite necrosante/fisiopatologia
Prematuro
Recém-nascido
Ultra-sonografia Doppler
Resumé en portugais
INTRODUÇÃO: O conhecimento de valores de normalidade do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria mesentérica superior (AMS) em recém-nascidos prematuros (RNPT) saudáveis pode prevenir quadros de intolerância alimentar e a ocorrência da enterocolite necrosante. MÉTODOS: Com o objetivo de descrever a evolução dos índices de avaliação da dopplerfluxometria da AMS em RNPT saudáveis de idade gestacional entre 27 e 34 semanas completas, no primeiro, no terceiro, no sétimo e semanalmente (14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias de vida), foi realizado este estudo coorte prospectivo em RNPT de idade gestacional ao nascimento entre 27 e 34 semanas completas. O exame dopplerfluxométrico foi realizado, após o consentimento livre e esclarecido dos responsáveis pelos RNPT, através do aparelho Logic Book 8C-RS (General Eletric EUA); obtendo-se as seguintes medidas: pico de velocidade sistólica (PVS), pico de velocidade diastólica final (PVDF) e média de velocidade de fluxo; sendo, após, calculadas o Índice de Pourcelot, sendo: [pico de velocidade sistólico pico diastólico final] / pico de velocidade sistólico, que representa um índice de resistência (IR); e índice de pulsatilidade (IP). Foram excluídos: recém-nascidos com instabilidade hemodinâmica; em ventilação assistida com altos parâmetros; síndromes mal-formativas; intolerância alimentar ou enterocolite necrosante; fototerapia; presença de cateteres umbilicais, persistência de canal arterial e pequenos para a idade gestacional. O exame pré-prandial foi realizado antes da alimentação (até 30 minutos) e pós-prandial entre 15 e 60 minutos após a alimentação. Foram realizados no primeiro dia (entre 6 a 24 horas de vida), no terceiro, no sétimo, e após, semanalmente até 42 dias de vida. Os resultados foram expressos em médias e desvios-padrão e descritos de maneira evolutiva. RESULTADOS: Ao total, foram estudados 77 RNPT e realizados 125 exames. Os valores em média±desvio-padrão são descritos na seqüência do primeiro, terceiro, sétimo e, consecutivamente a cada semana, até 42 dias de vida; sendo: IR pré-prandial de 0,69±0,09; 0,67±0,15; 0,75±0,07; 0,74±0,07; 0,75±0,07; 0,76±0,07; 0,79±0,03; 0,78±0,05 e IR pós-prandial de 0,66±0,10; 0,70±0,21; 0,74±0,07; 0,73±0,08; 0,75±0,06; 0,76±0,06; 0,77±0,04; 0,77±0,03. Os resultados de IP pré-prandial foram: 1,45±0,30; 1,35±0,28; 1,68±0,29; 1,50±0,23; 1,47±0,22; 1,52±0,20; 1,62±0,09; 1,68±0,06 e IP pós-prandial: 1,38±0,39; 1,40±0,29; 1,58±0,26; 1,46±0,26; 1,45±0,24; 1,50±0,27; 1,58±0,10; 1,64±0,04. Obtivemos PVS pré-prandial: 60,51±22,24; 55,24±26,04; 90,61±12,74; 95,33±18,11; 92,89±15,40; 96,96±12,18; 63,18±14,08; 58,12±9,78 e pós-prandial: 59,60±24,14; 110,82±32,45; 118,10±20,15; 121,95±24,18; 124,15±25,16; 126,07±18,17; 96,68±11,12; 96,12±8,98. Quanto a PVDF pré-prandial, obtivemos: 18,85±6,09; 18,66±10,01; 20,99±8,12; 22,02±8,50; 23,04±7,89; 22,24±8,02; 11,99±6,15; 12,05±5,12 e PVDF pós-prandial: 20,63±6,89; 30,15±12,78; 27,98±9,72; 29,02±10,05; 34,56±9,00; 32,02±8,45; 19,02±4,95; 21,15±3,43. A partir dos resultados acima, demonstra-se que o fluxo sanguíneo da AMS em RNPT saudáveis apresenta uma evolução peculiar a partir do nascimento tanto dos valores basais quanto após a estimulação com a dieta, representados por uma evolução característica dos índices de resistência, melhora dos picos de velocidades sistólica e diastólica e melhora da resposta vasodilatadora após a alimentação enteral. CONCLUSÕES: RNPT saudáveis de idade gestacional ao nascimento de 27 a 34 semanas completas apresentam uma evolução do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria mesentérica superior de maneira peculiar, do nascimento até 42 dias de vida, tanto dos valores basais quanto em resposta à alimentação. O conhecimento destes valores pode indicar a dopplerfluxometria como um método preventivo de avaliação específico de cada RNPT para a introdução e progressão mais segura da alimentação, reduzindo a ocorrência de quadros gastrintestinais, melhorando os índices de morbi-mortalidade neonatal.
Titre en anglais
Evolution of superior mesenteric artery blood flow by means of doppler velocimetry in health premature neonates
Mots-clés en anglais
Enterocolitis necrotizing/physiopathology
Infant newborn
Infant premature
Mesenteric artery superior/ ultrasonography
Mesenteric artery superior/growth & development
Ultrasonography Doppler
Resumé en anglais
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of the normal values of indices of Doppler velocimetry of the superior mesenteric artery in healthy premature neonates may help to prevent feeding intolerance situations and necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: In order to describe the indices for evaluation of Doppler velocimetry of the superior mesenteric artery in healthy premature neonates with gestational age between 27 and 34 weeks, on the first, third, seventh days, and then weekly, until six weeks of life; this is a prospective cohort study. The Doppler velocimetric examination was done by means of the Logic Book 8C-RS (General Electric USA), using a 8 MHz imaging transducer, with the pulsed color Doppler readings being obtained by sonographic waves at 4 MHz. The neonate was kept in a supine position, with the transducer positioned in the epigastric region, immediately below the xyphoid appendix, obtaining two-dimensional images of the celiac trunk and of the superior mesenteric artery, a few millimeters after its emergence from the aorta in the sagittal plane. The flux measurements were obtained in the longitudinal direction of the vessel and at an angle of insonation between 0 and 20 degrees. The blood flow curves were recorded after a sequence of five stable measurements, with respect to the quality of the waves, and with respect to their audible characteristics; thus obtaining the following measurements: peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and average flow velocity; with the Pourcelot Index being calculated subsequently, that is: [peak of systolic velocity end diastolic velocity / peak of systolic velocity, which represents a resitance index (RI); and pulsatility index (PI). The values obtained were expressed as averages and standard deviations. The results were stored in an Excel database, with blind analysis after the conclusion of data gathering. Uncomplicated and appropriate for gestational age premature neonates with gestational age between 27 and 34 weeks at birth were included in the study. We adopted as criteria for exclusion from the study: neonates in unstable hemodynamic conditions; needing assisted ventilation with high parameters; large deformations or clinical syndromes; feeding intolerance or diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis; conditions that alter the mesenteric flow, such as: phototherapy, presence of umbilical catheters, patent ductus arteriosus and sepsis. The exams were done prior to feeding (up to 30 minutes) and after feeding (between 15 and 60 minutes). If the neonate was fasting, only one of the above parameters was measured, in order to establish behavior of the basal mesenteric flow at that moment. The exams were done on the first day (between the 6th and 24th hours of life), third, seventh days, and then weekly, until six weeks of life. Data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation and described for each postnatal age group. RESULTS: A total of 77 neonates were studied and realized 125 exams. The values of the resistance and pulsatility indices (RI and PI); peaks of systolic (PSV) and final diastolic velocity (EDV) on the first, third, seventh days, and then, on sequentially for each week until six weeks of postnatal life; as mean and standard deviations, was described: RI prior to feeding were 0,69±0,09; 0,67±0,15; 0,75±0,07; 0,74±0,07; 0,75±0,07; 0,76±0,07; 0,79±0,03; 0,78±0,05 and RI after feeding were 0,66±0,10; 0,70±0,21; 0,74±0,07; 0,73±0,08; 0,75±0,06; 0,76±0,06; 0,77±0,04; 0,77±0,03. The results of PI prior to feeding: 1,45±0,30; 1,35±0,28; 1,68±0,29; 1,50±0,23; 1,47±0,22; 1,52±0,20; 1,62±0,09; 1,68±0,06 and PI after feeding: 1,38±0,39; 1,40±0,29; 1,58±0,26; 1,46±0,26; 1,45±0,24; 1,50±0,27; 1,58±0,10; 1,64±0,04. The values of PSV prior to feeding were: 60,51±22,24; 55,24±26,04; 90,61±12,74; 95,33±18,11; 92,89±15,40; 96,96±12,18; 63,18±14,08; 58,12±9,78 and after feeding: 59,60±24,14; 110,82±32,45; 118,10±20,15; 121,95±24,18; 124,15±25,16; 126,07±18,17; 96,68±11,12; 96,12±8,98. And the results of EDV prior to feeding: 18,85±6,09; 18,66±10,01; 20,99±8,12; 22,02±8,50; 23,04±7,89; 22,24±8,02; 11,99±6,15; 12,05±5,12 and EDV after feeding: 20,63±6,89; 30,15±12,78; 27,98±9,72; 29,02±10,05; 34,56±9,00; 32,02±8,45; 19,02±4,95; 21,15±3,43. These results shows that healthy premature neonates with gestational age between 27 and 34 weeks presents a peculiar evolution in blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery after birth, represented by the resistance patterns caracteristics, improvement in peaks of systolic and diastolic velocity, and improvement in vasodilation in response to feeding. CONCLUSION: These results suggest for the Doppler velocimetry as specific and preventive evaluation method for each premature neonate, as a way to a safer introduction and progression of feeding, reducing the prevalence of gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases in neonates, and improving the indices of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of blood-flow velocity in the superior mesenteric artery in uncomplicated preterm infants might provide a clue in investigating the maturation of intestinal circulation and the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of gastrointestinal diseases in newborn infants.
 
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Date de Publication
2009-10-05
 
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