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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2010.tde-06042010-144602
Document
Author
Full name
Stella Maria Pedrossian Vecchiatti
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Lin, Chin Jia (President)
Capelozzi, Vera Luiza
Friguglietti, Celso Ubirajara Moretto
Monte, Osmar
Pompeu, Eduardo
Title in Portuguese
O iodo aumenta e antecipa a incidência de tireoidites em camundongos não obesos diabéticos (NOD): estudo histológico e ultra-estrutural
Keywords in Portuguese
Autopsia
Camundongos
Imunoistoquímica
Iodo
Prevalência
Tireoidite auto-imune
Abstract in Portuguese
As tireoidites auto-imunes são afecções endocrinológicas relativamente comuns. Há uma noção entre os clínicos de que a incidência das mesmas tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Este aumento foi documentado em algumas regiões no mundo, mas ainda há controvérsias se o mesmo ocorre no nosso país. Apesar de ser alvo de intensos e exaustivos estudos, a fisiopatologia das tireoidites auto-imunes bem como a identidade do fator desencadeante inicial da auto-imunidade permanecem obscuros e fatores genéticos, ambientais, medicamentosos e nutricionais (por exemplo, iodo) têm sido responsabilizados como causas do incremento da freqüência da auto-imunidade tireoidiana. O Iodo tem sido implicado, como responsável pelo aumento de incidência em diferentes populações após sua introdução para prevenção de bócio endêmico. Na literatura as tireoidites são definidas e classificadas de diferentes formas e há diversidade de metodologias para avaliação de material cirúrgico e de necropsias o que dificulta o estudo comparativo em diferentes séries. Para verificar se houve incremento da freqüência de tireoidites em nossa área estudamos retrospectivamente os laudos de 5 anos de necropsias realizadas no SVO da FMUSP e comparamos com levantamento anterior realizado na mesma instituição. Os infiltrados linfocitários foram marcados para CD4, CD8, CD20 e CD68. A participação da apoptose foi analisada pela técnica do TUNEL e marcação de caspase 3. Camundongos NOD (Não Obesos Diabéticos) foram submetidos à sobrecarga oral de iodo por 60 e 90 dias com o objetivo de avaliar o papel do iodo nas alterações histolopatológicas da tireóide e para criar um modelo experimental para o estudo da fisiopatologia da tireoidite autoimune.. Resultados: A freqüência de tireoidite em nosso estudo de necropsias aumentou 58 vezes em relação ao estudo anterior (2,3% e 0,04%, respectivamente). À imunohistoquímica, os casos classificados inicialmente como tireoidite linfocítica e tireoidite de Hashimoto mostraram padrão semelhante de infiltrados sugerindo serem as duas condições estágios evolutivos da mesma doença. A apoptose foi marcante nos casos estudados demonstrando ter papel importante na fisiopatologia da tireoidite auto-imune. Nos camundongos NOD o iodo antecipou e aumentou a prevalência de tireoidites. Nas duas tireóides estudadas à microscopia eletrônica encontramos lesões mitocondriais e do retículo endoplasmático rugoso que não foram vistas em nossos controles. Conclusão: Temos um incremento real da prevalência de tireoidites em necropsias realizadas em nossa instituição. O padrão histopatológico das tireoidites auto-imunes estudadas sugere que a tireoidite dita linfocítica poderia corresponder à fase inicial do processo auto-imune que levaria à tireoidite de Hashimoto. O iodo foi o fator desencadeante e que aumentou e antecipou a incidência de tireoidite em nosso estudo experimental.
Title in English
Iodine increases and anticipates the incidence of thyroiditis in nonobese diabetic (NOD): a histological and ultra-structural study
Keywords in English
Autoimmune thyroiditis
Autopsy
Immunohistochemistry
Iodine
Mice
Prevalence
Abstract in English
Autoimmune thyroiditis are relatively common endocrine diseases. There is a common perception among clinicians that its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Such an increase has been documented in a number of regions worldwide; it remains controversial, however, whether the frequency of thyroiditis is increasing in our country. Despite of being a subject of intense and exhaustive studies, the pathophysiology of auto-immune thyroiditis as well as the identity of the factor that triggers the initial autoimmunity have remained undetermined and genetics, environmental factors, drugs and, nutrition (e.g., iodine) have been implicated in the increase of frequency of thyroid autoimmunity. The iodine has been hold responsible for the increase in the incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis in different populations after its introduction in iodine-defficient regions as a prophylaxis for endemic goiter. There is a myriad of different definitions and classifications for thyroiditis. There is also a great diversity in methods used in the assessment of surgical specimens and necropsy materials. Such a diversity of classification systems and study protocols creates a barrier for comparison of data from different series/studies. In order to verify whether an increase in frequency of thyroids is occurring in our population we retrospectively analyzed the report of necropsies performed in a period of five years in the service of death verification of University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine and compared to a published study performed previously at the same institution. Lymphocytic infiltrations were labeled with antiserum against CD4, CD8, CD20 e CD68. The involvement of apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL and caspase 3 labeling. NOD (Non Obese Diabetic) mice were exposed with high dose oral iodine for 60 or 90 days in order to evaluate the role of iodine in the genesis of histopathological derangements of thyroid and to create an experimental model for the study of autoimmune thyroiditis. Results: In this study, we found a 58-fold increase in the frequency of thyroiditis in comparison to the study performed previously (2,3% e 0,04%, respectively). Cases categorized initially as lymphocytic thyroiditis showed a cell infiltrate that labeled by immunohistochemistry in a similar way as the infiltrates of cases classified as Hashimotos thyroiditis which suggests that these entities might be different stages of a same disease. All cases displayed strong labeling for apoptosis markers demonstrating its important role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroiditis. Iodine anticipated and increased the frequency of thyroiditis in NOD mice. In both thyroids studied with electron microscopy, we found mitochondrial and rough endoplasmic reticulum lesions that were not seen on control thyroids. Conclusion: there is an actual increase in thyroiditis prevalence in necropsies performed at our institution. The histological pattern of autoimmune thyroiditis we studied suggests that the sol called lymphocytic thyroiditis might be the initial stage of an autoimmune process that would eventually lead to Hashimotos thyroiditis. The iodine was the triggering factor which increased and anticipated the incidence of thyroiditis in our experimental study.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-07
 
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