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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2010.tde-27082010-175749
Document
Author
Full name
Marco Antonio Garcia Martins
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Saiki, Mitiko (President)
André, Paulo Afonso de
Andrade, Maria de Fatima
Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador
Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
Title in Portuguese
Variação da composição e toxicidade do material particulado ao longo do dia na cidade de São Paulo
Keywords in Portuguese
Material particulado/análise
Material particulado/toxicidade
Metais/toxicidade
Monitoramento ambiental/instrumentação
Monitoramento ambiental/métodos
Poluição do ar
Abstract in Portuguese
Este estudo avalia os efeitos adversos na saúde causados pelas variações na composição do material particulado em curtos períodos de tempo. Para tanto, foram determinados Black Carbon (BC), massa e composição elementar do PM2.5 coletado em dois diferentes períodos, Dia e Noite, na cidade de São Paulo. Além das análises químicas, gravimetria, análise de reflectância e espectrometria por fluorescência de Raios-X, foram realizados testes toxicológicos de contagem de micronúcleos utilizando ressuspensão do PM2,5 em raízes de Allium cepa (cebola). O PM2.5 foi amostrado na saída do Concentrador de Partículas Finas Ambientais de Harvard (CPFAH) e as amostras foram coletadas diariamente por quinze dias, entre Maio e Junho (Experimento 1) e entre Outubro e Novembro (Experimento 2) de 2009, durante o Dia (8:00h - 11:00h e 14:00h - 17:00h) e a Noite (20:00h - 23:00h). A variabilidade na composição do PM2.5 foi analizada utilizando o método de componentes principais, por meio da qual foram identificados três fatores significantes: Fator 1, onde encontramos BC e os elementos Ca, Fe, K, Si, Zn e Ti que podem ser característicos da emissão do tráfego veicular em geral; Fator 2 onde encontramos Ni e Cr que podem ser interpretados como resultado das emissões industriais; e o Fator 3 é formado pelos elementos V e S que podem ser característicos das emissões das queimas de diesel e óleo combustível. A análise univariada da contagem dos três fatores mostrou uma diferença significativa somente para o Fator 3 (p=0,022) entre os dois períodos, fazendo-se mais presente no período noturno. A frequência do número de micronúcleos das células de raízes de cebola foi maior para período noturno. Os resultados indicam que existem diferenças na composição e toxicidade do PM2,5 coletado em diferentes períodos na cidade de São Paulo. Os dados sugerem que a toxicidade do PM2,5 pode ser influenciada pelas mudanças nos padrões de tráfego e processos fotoquímicos da atmosfera.
Title in English
Composition and toxicology variations of particle matter during the day in São Paulo city
Keywords in English
Air pollution
Environmental monitoring/instrumentation
Environmental monitoring/methods
Metals/toxicity
Particulate mater/analisys
Particulate mater/toxicity
Abstract in English
The objective of this study was to evaluate the adverse health effects of shortterm variations in particle composition. For this purpose, black carbon, particle mass and elemental composition of PM2.5 collected along the two different periods in São Paulo city were determined. In addition to the chemical measurements, toxicological evaluation was performed using the Allium cepa micronuclei assay test and particle suspensions of PM2.5 as test substrate. PM2.5 was sampled at the output of the Harvard Ambient Fine Particle Concentrator (HAFPC). The samples were collected daily from May 19th to June 4th (period 1) of 2009, during the morning (from 8 AM to 11 AM), afternoon (from 2 PM to 5 PM), and evening (from 8 PM to 11 PM), and from November 11th (period 2) of 2009, during the morning (from 8 AM to 11 AM), and evening (from 8 PM to 11 PM). Samples collected during the morning and afternoon were called Day and those collected during the evening, EVENING. Concentrations of PM2.5 mass (gravimetric method), black carbon (reflectance analysis) and trace elementals (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) were determined. Variability in PM2.5 composition measured was analyzed using Principal Components Analysis in which 3 significant factors were identified. Results of black carbon (BC) and of elements Ca, Fe, K, Si, Zn and Ti were grouped in Factor 1, that can be characteristic of general traffic emission; In Factor 2, Ni and Cr were included and it can be interpreted as a result of industry emissions; and Factor 3 is formed by V and S what characterizes diesel/oil combustion emissions. Univariate Analysis of factor scores indicated a significant difference between the periods scores of factor 3 (p=0.022). The frequency of number of micronuclei obtained was also higher in samples collected at the EVENING than those of DAY. In conclusion, our results indicate that there are differences in the composition and toxicity of PM2.5 collected in different periods of the day. These findings suggest that particle toxicity may be influenced by changes in traffic patterns and photochemical processes.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-08-27
 
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