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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2007.tde-13022008-095440
Document
Author
Full name
Luciana Oba Onishi Kikuchi
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Carrilho, Flair José (President)
Dantas, Esther Buzaglo
Nita, Suzane Kioko Ono
Title in Portuguese
Análise da sobrevida de pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular pequeno
Keywords in Portuguese
Carcinoma hepatocelular
Diagnóstico precoce
Sobrevida
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: O carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) é o câncer primário de fígado mais comum. A cirrose hepática é o principal fator de risco para esse tumor. O rastreamento para o CHC em pacientes com cirrose tem sido recomendado há anos. Acredita-se que a detecção e o tratamento precoce do CHC melhorem a sobrevida dos pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a sobrevida dos pacientes cirróticos com CHC pequeno e identificar fatores preditivos de sobrevida no Brasil. Casuística e Métodos: Entre janeiro de 1998 e dezembro de 2003, 74 pacientes cirróticos com CHC foram avaliados. Eles preenchiam os seguintes critérios: CHC com até três nódulos e no máximo 30 mm de diâmetro cada. Os fatores preditores de sobrevida foram identificados através do método de Kaplan-Meier e o modelo de Cox. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 58 anos (32-77); 71% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino; 64% tinham hepatite C; 60% eram Child-Pugh A, o valor mediano da pontuação de MELD foi de 11; 79% tinham hipertensão portal. No momento do diagnóstico, 71% tinham uma única lesão; o tamanho do principal tumor era menor que 20 mm em 47%; o valor médio de AFP foi de 131 ng/ml. Três pacientes tinham trombose de veia porta, sugestiva de invasão vascular. Cinqüenta pacientes (67,5%) foram incluídos na lista de transplante hepático, que foi realizado só em quatro pacientes. A ressecção cirúrgica do tumor foi possível em quatro pacientes. Quarenta e oito (64,8%) pacientes receberam tratamento ablativo percutâneo (ablação por radiofreqüência ou injeção percutânea de etanol). Nove pacientes não receberam nenhum tratamento específico para o tumor. A taxa de sobrevida geral foi de 80%; 62%; 41% e 17% em 12, 24, 36 e sessenta meses, respectivamente. O tempo médio de seguimento após o diagnóstico do CHC foi de 23 meses (mediana de 22 meses, variando de um a 86 meses) para todo o grupo. Durante o seguimento, ocorreram 39 óbitos ocorreram relacionados com insuficiência hepática ou progressão do CHC. A análise univariada dos 74 pacientes mostrou que escore MELD maior que 11 (p = 0,016), classificação de Child-Pugh B e C (p = 0,007), AFP > 100 ng/ml (p = 0,006), mais de uma lesão (p = 0,041), diâmetro do tumor > 20 mm (p = 0,009) e presença de invasão vascular (p < 0,0001) foram preditores independentes de sobrevida. A análise de regressão de Cox identificou invasão vascular (RR = 14,60 - IC 95% = 3,3 - 64,56 - p < 0,001) e tamanho do tumor > 20mm (RR = 2,14 - IC 95% = 1,07 - 4,2 - p = 0,030) como preditores independentes de pior sobrevida. O tratamento do CHC esteve relacionado com melhor sobrevida. Conclusão: A identificação de CHC pequeno com até 20 mm de diâmetro está relacionada com melhores taxas de sobrevida. Por outro lado, a presença de invasão vascular, apesar do tamanho pequeno das lesões, é um fator associado a péssimo prognóstico.
Title in English
Survival analysis of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma
Keywords in English
Carcinoma hepatocellular
Early diagnosis
Survivorship
Abstract in English
Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Liver cirrhosis is the major risk factor for this tumor. Screening for HCC in patients with cirrhosis has been recommended, in the belief that detection and treatment of early HCC improves patient survival. The aims of this study were to analyze the overall survival of small HCC in cirrhotic patients and identify independent predictors of survival, in Brazil. Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2003, seventy-four cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were evaluated satisfying the following criteria: HCC of 30 mm or smaller and a maximum of three lesions. Predictors of survival were identified using the Kaplan-Meier and the Cox model. Results: Mean age was 58 years-old (32-77), 71% of patients was male, 64% had hepatitis C, 60% were Child-Pugh A, mean MELD score was 11 and 79% had portal hypertension. At the time of diagnosis, 71% had one tumor, the size of the main tumor was smaller than 20 mm in 47%, mean AFP level was 131 ng/ml. Three patients had portal vein thrombosis, suggesting vascular invasion. Fifty patients (67.5%) were included in the liver transplant list, but it was performed in only four patients. Tumor resection was possible in four patients. Forty-eight (64.8%) patients received percutaneous treatment (radiofrequency ablation or percutaneous ethanol injection). Nine patients did not receive any cancer treatment. The overall survival rates were 80%, 62%, 41% and 17% at 12, 24, 36 and 60 months, respectively. The mean length of follow-up after HCC diagnosis was 23 months (median 22 months, range 1-86 months) for the entire group. During follow-up a total of 39 deaths related to liver failure or HCC progression occurred. Univariate analysis of the 74 patients showed that MELD score greater than 11 (p = 0.016), Child-Pugh classification (p = 0.007), AFP > 100 ng/ml (p = 0.006), more than one lesion (p = 0.041), tumor diameter > 20 mm (p = 0.009) and presence of vascular invasion (p < 0.0001) were significant predictors of survival. Cox regression analysis identified vascular invasion (RR = 14.60 - IC 95% = 3.3 - 64.56 - p < 0.001) and tumor size > 20mm (RR = 2.14 - IC 95% = 1.07 - 4.2 - p = 0.030) as independent predictors of decreased survival. Treatment of HCC was related to increased overall survival. Conclusion: Identification of small tumors of up to 20 mm diameter is related to increase survival. Nevertheless, vascular invasion, in spite of the small diameter of the lesions, is a factor associated with dismal prognosis.
 
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Publishing Date
2008-03-13
 
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