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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2014.tde-23062014-084607
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Cristina Martins Dal Santo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Yu, Luis (President)
Seguro, Antonio Carlos
Santos, Bento Fortunato Cardoso dos
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação de fatores de risco para injúria renal aguda (IRA) em pacientes oncológicos na UTI
Keywords in Portuguese
Cuidados paliativos
Fatores de risco
Lesão renal aguda
Lesão renal aguda/mortalidade
Neoplasias/diagnóstico
Neoplasias/mortalidade
Prevalência
Serviço hospitalar de oncologia
Unidade de terapia intensiva
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: Pacientes portadores de câncer estão sobrevivendo mais devido aos avanços no diagnóstico precoce e tratamento dos tumores. A diminuição da mortalidade relacionada ao câncer e o envelhecimento da população acarretaram um número crescente de pacientes oncológicos internados em UTI. Objetivos: Identificar a prevalência e os fatores de risco para IRA nos pacientes oncológicos críticos. Métodos: Foram avaliados, prospectivamente, 371 pacientes oncológicos internados nas UTIs do Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo e do Hospital AC Camargo, entre novembro de 2011 a março de 2013. Os pacientes foram avaliados na admissão, 24h e 48h da internação na UTI. Foram coletados os parâmetros demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais os quais foram analisados para os desfechos IRA, conforme o critério AKIN (Cr > 0,3 mg/dl ou aumento de 50% sobre a Cr basal em 48h) e óbito na UTI. Os dados foram submetidos à análise bivariada e multivariada. Resultados: A incidência de IRA nos pacientes oncológicos foi de 45,1%, sendo que apenas 5,2% necessitaram de tratamento dialítico. Os pacientes com IRA apresentaram mais frequentemente admissão cirúrgica (49% IRA vs 34% sem IRA; p=0,022). Na admissão à UTI, os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento de IRA (IRA vs sem IRA) foram: ventilação mecânica (26,6% vs 16,0%; p=0,031), frequência cardíaca (88 bpm vs 82 bpm; p=0,029), balanço hídrico (575 ml vs 275 ml; p = 0,0002), lactato (19 mg/dL vs 17 mg/dL; p= 0,046) e fósforo (3,9 mg/dL vs 3,4 mg/dL; p < 0,0001). A taxa de óbito hospitalar foi de 37,3% sendo que 25,3% ocorreu na UTI. A mortalidade foi mais prevalente em pacientes com câncer hematológico (8,6% sobreviventes vs 19,5% óbitos; p = 0,008), procedentes do pronto atendimento (23,5% sobreviventes vs 34,1% óbitos; p = 0,002), admissão clínica (50,4% sobreviventes vs 84,1% óbitos; p < 0,0001) e internação não planejada (59,9% vs 86,6% óbitos; p < 0,0001). Outros fatores relacionados ao óbito foram: sinais de congestão, uso de drogas vasoativas, choque séptico e infecção respiratória (p < 0,0001). Os dias de internação prévios à admissão na UTI também se relacionaram ao óbito (6 dias óbitos vs 2 dias sobreviventes; p < 0,0001). Os exames laboratoriais que se relacionaram ao óbito foram (sobreviventes vs óbitos): hipoalbuminemia (2,7 g/dL vs 2,4 g/dL; p= 0,003), aumento do INR (1,3 vs 1,5; p < 0,0001); aumento do lactato (17 mg/dL vs 20,5 mg/dL; p = 0,037), PCR (41,8 mg/dL vs 148,4 mg/dL; p < 0,0001) e TP (69% vs 59,5%; p = 0,001). Conclusão: A IRA é frequente em pacientes oncológicos admitidos na UTI e apresenta alta mortalidade. As ocorrências de IRA e óbito encontram-se mais relacionados com a gravidade das disfunções orgânicas no momento da admissão à UTI, do que às características da neoplasia de base
Title in English
Evaluation of risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in cancer patients in the ICU
Keywords in English
Acute kidney injury
Acute kidney injury/mortality
Hospital oncology service
Intensive care unit
Neoplasms/diagnostic
Neoplasms/mortality
Palliative care
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract in English
Introduction: Cancer patients are currently presenting longer survival due to advances in diagnosis and treatment. Mortality reduction related to cancer and aging of population had led to an increased admission of cancer patients in the ICU. Objectives: Evaluation of the prevalence and risk factors for AKI in critically ill cancer patients. Methods: It was prospectively evaluated 371 cancer patients admitted to the ICU in Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo and Hospital AC Camargo, from November 2011 until March 2013. Patients were evaluated at admission, 24h and 48h in the ICU. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were collected which were correlated with the outcome AKI (AKIN I - Cr > 0.3 mg/dL or 50% increase over baseline in 48h) and mortality in the ICU. Statistical analysis was performed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The incidence of AKI in cancer patients was 45.1% but only 5.2% were dialysed. AKI patients were more frequently admitted due to surgical admission (AKI 53% vs. 49% non-AKI, p=0.022). At ICU admission, factors associated with AKI development (AKI vs. non-AKI) were: mechanical ventilation (26.6% vs. 16%, p =0.031), heart beats (88 bpm vs. 82 bpm, p=0.029), fluid balance (575 ml vs. 275 ml, p=0.0002), lactate (19 mg/dLvs. 17 mg/dL, p=0.046) and phosphorus (3.9 mg/dL vs. 3.4 mg/dL, p < 0.0001). Hospital mortality rate was 37.3% whereas ICU mortality was 25.3%. Mortality was more prevalent in patients with hematological cancer (8.6% survivors vs. 19.5% non-survivors, p = 0.008), patients from emergency room (23.5% survivors vs. 34.1% non-survivors, p = 0.002), patients with clinical admission (50.4% survivors vs. 84.1% non-survivors, p < 0.0001) and non-elective admission (59.9% vs. 86.6% non-survivors, p < 0.0001). Other factors related to mortality were: volume overload, vasoactive drugs use, septic shock and pulmonary infection (p < 0.0001). Hospitalization period before ICU admission also correlated with mortality (6 days survivors vs. 2 days non-survivors, p 0.0001). The laboratory parameters that correlated to mortality were (survivors vs. non-survivors): hypoalbuminemia (2.7 g/dL vs. 2.4 g/dL, p=0.003), increased INR (1.3 vs. 1.5, p < 0.0001), increased lactate (17 mg/dL vs. 20.5 mg/dL, p=0.037), PCR (41.8 mg/dL vs 148.4 mg/dL, p < 0.0001) e PT (69% vs. 59.5%, p = 0.001). Conclusions: AKI is a frequent complication in cancer patients admitted to ICU, presenting high mortality rate. AKI and mortality outcomes are more related to the severity of organs dysfunction at ICU admission than the patient´s cancer disease
 
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Publishing Date
2014-06-23
 
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