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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2018.tde-08052018-112512
Document
Author
Full name
Vinícius Borges Porfírio Pereira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Bechara, Samir Jacob (President)
Garcia, Renato
Lui Netto, Adamo
Santo, Ruth Miyuki
Title in Portuguese
Dor no pós-operatório da ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK) com fosfato de codeína 30 mg/ paracetamol 500 mg: ensaio clínico aleatório
Keywords in Portuguese
Ceratectomia fotorrefrativa
Ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ
Codeína
Dor
Ensaio clínico aleatório
Lasers de excimer
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: A ceratectornia fotorrefrativa (PRK) é uma das técnicas de cirurgia refrativa mais empregadas no mundo. A despeito de sua efetividade e segurança no tratamento de miopia, hipermetropia e astigmatismo, a dor permanece ainda como um dos grandes desafios no período pós-operatório da PRK. Embora a associação dos fármacos codeína (opióide oral) e paracetamol (analgésico) seja amplamente empregada no período pós-cirúrgico de várias especialidades médicas. a eficácia e segurança dessa associação não foi avaliada no manejo da dor no pós-PRK. Objetivo: O objetivo da presente tese foi testar a combinação codeína + paracetamol no manejo da dor pós-PRK. Métodos: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico controlado por placebo, randomizado, paralelo e duplo-cego. O subdelineamento é do tipo "add-on ", isto é. o grupo da intervenção recebeu a terapia padrão + a intervenção. enquanto o grupo controle recebeu a terapia padrão + placebo. A amostra foi composta por 41 participantes (82 olhos) - por meio do delineamento "olhos pareados" (paired-eye design), ou seja, o olho foi a unidade de análise. As cirurgias foram realizadas com duas semanas de intervalo. Um olho recebeu codeína (30 mg) + paracetamol (500 mg) 4x1dia por quatro dias (período A), enquanto o outro olho recebeu placebo 4x/dia por quatro dias (período B). Tanto a alocação (intervenção ou placebo) quanto a ordem (A-B ou B-A) foram aleatorizadas. A dor foi avaliada por meio de três escalas: questionário de dor McGill (MPQ). Inventário Resumido da Dor (I3PI) e escala visual análoga (EVA) nos períodos I, 24, 48 e 72 horas após a cirurgia. O período de seguimento total foi de quatro meses. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 30 anos (rnin-máx: 22-52), dos quais 67% foram mulheres. Dos 82 olhos inicialmente arrolados no estudo, 80 completaram os quatro meses de seguimento (40 na intervenção e 40 no placebo). Os escores medianos de dor mensurados pela EVA foram significativamente mais baixos no grupo da intervenção comparado com o grupo placebo - durante todo o período do pós- cirúrgico imediato (1-48 horas). Os eventos adversos foram brandos e de fácil manejo clínico; os mais comuns foram sonolência, náusea e constipação. Após um seguimento de quatro meses, não foi observado nenhum retardo na resposta de cicatrização da córnea ou haze. Conclusões: A combinação de codeína (30mg) e paracetamol (500mg) via oral (4x/dia) é segura e significativamente superior ao placebo para o controle da dor após a PRK
Title in English
Codeine plus acetaminophen for pain afier photorefractive keratectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on trial
Keywords in English
Codeine
Excimer laser
Laser in situ, Pain
Photorefractive keratectomy
Randomized controlled trial
Abstract in English
Introduction: Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is one of most widely performed types of refractive surgery in the world. In spite of its effectiveness and safety for the treatment of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism, pain remains one of the biggest clinical challenges during the early postoperative period after PRK. Although the combination of codeine (an oral opioid) plus acetaminophcn (an analgesic) has been widely used during the postoperative period in many medical specialties, both its efficacy and safety have not been formally investigated for pain control after PRK. Objective: To carry out a randomized, controlled c1inical trial, specifically dcsigned to test whether the combination of codeine + acetaminophen is efficacious and safe for pain control after PRK. Methods: Double-blind (patients and outcome assessors), randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. An add-on design was adopted. tl.at is, the intervention group received the standard of care therapy + codeine/acetaminophen, whereas the control group received the standard o[ care therapy + placebo. The sample encompassed 41 participants (82 eyes) through the "paired-eye design". In other words, the eye was the unity of analysis. Surgeries were performed two weeks ap311. One eye received codeine (30mg) + acetaminophen (500mg) 4x/day for four days (period A), whereas the fellow (control) eye received placebo 4x/day for four days (period B). Both treatrnents (intervention or placebo) and treatment order (A-B or B-A) were randomly chosen. Pain was asscsscd at 1, 24, 48 and 72h postopcrativcly by three scales: visual analogue scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MQP) and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). The total follow-up period was 4 months. Results: The mean age of patients was 30 years (rnin-max: 22-52) and 67% (27/40) were female. Ofthe initial 82 eyes, 80 completed the trial (40 in the intervention 31m, 40 in the placebo arm). Median pain scores as measured by the VAS were significantly lower during treatment with codeine/acetaminophen compared to the placebo throughout the early postoperative period (1-48h). Virtually identical results were obtained by the MQP and BPI scales, suggesting that the intervention can have a positive impact not only on the pain intensity, but also on the multidimensional aspects of pain, such as interference on activities of daily living as well as emotional status. Adverse events (AEs) were usually mild and easily managed. The most common AEs were drowsiness, nausea and constipation. After a follow- up period of four months, no case of delayed epithelial healing or haze was observed in both treatment arms. Conclusions: When added to the standard of care therapy, the oral combination of codeine (30mg) and acetaminophen (500mg) given 4x/day was safe and significantly superior to placebo for pain control after PRK
 
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Publishing Date
2018-05-10
 
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