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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2018.tde-28092018-104410
Document
Author
Full name
Hirlana Gomes Almeida
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
José Junior, Newton Kara (President)
Carricondo, Pedro Carlos
Espindola, Rodrigo França de
Zacharias, Leandro Cabral
Jorge, Priscilla de Almeida
Title in Portuguese
Transplante de córnea no Brasil: progresso e dificuldades em 16 anos
Keywords in Portuguese
Banco de olhos
Córnea
Custos e análise de custo
Doação dirigida de tecido
Doadores de tecidos
Obtenção de tecidos e órgãos
Transplante de córnea
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: As doenças da córnea são responsáveis por cerca de 5% da cegueira reversível no mundo e o transplante de córnea (TC) é importante para o tratamento dessas enfermidades. A partir de fontes de dados oficiais e públicas, foram analisados o progresso e as dificuldades relacionados ao TC no Brasil nos últimos 16 anos, bem como desigualdades regionais, gastos do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e indicadores de qualidade dos bancos de tecido ocular (BTOs). Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo e analítico com dados sobre TCs e BTOs no Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2016, divulgados pelo Sistema Nacional de Transplantes (SNT), pela Associação Brasileira de Transplante de Órgãos (ABTO) e pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Para verificação de existência de tendência, comparação de médias entre as regiões e verificação da diferença de médias, foram utilizados o teste de Cochran-Armitage, a Análise de Variância e as comparações múltiplas de Duncan, respectivamente. Em todos os testes foi utilizado um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: No Brasil, houve aumento: de 2,4 vezes no número de TCs (de 6.193 - 35,2 pmp para 14.641 - 71,0 pmp - p < 0,001); de 50,7% na eficácia do atendimento à demanda populacional por TCs (de 35,3% para 53,2% - p < 0,001); de 27,8% no número de globos e córneas in situ doados (de 24.608 - 127,1 pmp para 31.450 - 152,6 pmp - p < 0,001); de 31,7% nas córneas preservadas (de 21.012 para 27.674); de 2,4 vezes no gasto financeiro total com TCs (de R$ 9.179.688 para R$ 22.060.973); e de 2,2 vezes no gasto unitário com TC (de R$ 716 para R$ 1.603). A fila de espera para TC reduziu em 45,4% (de 23.549 - 123,0 pmp para 12.865 - 62,4 pmp - p < 0,001). As duas principais causas para a não doação foram as contraindicações médicas (média de 42,5%) e a recusa familiar (média de 36,6%). As principais causas de descarte de córneas foram a sorologia positiva para hepatite B (média de 33%), validade tecidual (média de 30,9%) e qualidade imprópria do tecido (16,8%). A Eficácia na Preservação de Córnea (EPC), o Coeficiente de Descarte de Córnea (CDC) e a Eficácia no Fornecimento de Córnea para Transplante (ECT) foram em média 88%, 37% e 63% ao longo dos anos, respectivamente. Os melhores índices foram apresentados nas regiões Sul, Centro-Oeste e Sudeste e os piores no Norte e Nordeste. Conclusão: No Brasil, o pequeno número de doações e a grande taxa de descarte de córneas são as principais dificuldades ao adequado atendimento à demanda populacional por TCs. Contudo, o país aumentou a capacidade de transplantar córneas e reduziu as filas de espera em 16 anos
Title in English
Corneal transplantation in Brazil: progress and difficulties in 16 years
Keywords in English
Cornea
Corneal transplantation
Costs and cost analysis
Directed tissue donation
Eye bank
Tissue donors
Tissues and organ procurement
Abstract in English
Introduction: Corneal diseases account for about 5% of reversible blindness in the world and Corneal Transplantation (CT) is important for the treatment of these diseases. From official and public data sources, the progress and difficulties related to CT in Brazil in the last 16 years were analyzed, as well as regional inequalities, expenses for the Unified Health System (SUS) and quality indicators of ocular tissue banks (OTBs). Methods: A retrospective and analytical study with data on CT and OTB in Brazil, from January 2001 to December 2016, published by the National Transplantation System (SNT), the Brazilian Organ Transplantation Association (ABTO) and the National Surveillance Agency Sanitary (ANVISA). The Cochran-Armitage test, the Analysis of Variance and the Duncan's multiple comparisons were used to verify the existence of trend, comparison of means between regions and verification of the mean difference, respectively. A significance level of 5% was used in all tests. Results: In Brazil, there was an increase: of 2.4 times in the number of CTs (from 6,193 - 35.2 pmp to 14,641 - 71.0 pmp - p < 0.001); of 50.7% in the efficacy of meeting the population demand for CTs (from 35.3% to 53.2% - p < 0.001); of 27.8% in the number of donated globes and corneas in situ (from 24,608 - 127.1 pmp to 31,450 - 152.6 pmp - p < 0.001); of 31.7% in preserved corneas (from 21,012 to 27,674); of 2.4 times in the total finance expense with CTs (from R$ 9,179,688 to R$ 22,060,973); and 2.2 times the unit expense with CT (from R$ 716 to R$ 1,603). The waiting list for CT decreased by 45.4% (from 23,549 - 123.0 pmp to 12,865 - 62.4 pmp - p < 0.001). The two main causes for non-donation were medical contraindications (mean of 42.5%) and family refusal (mean of 36.6%). The main causes of corneal discard were positive serology for hepatitis B (mean of 33%), tissue validity (mean of 30.9%) and inadequate tissue quality (16.8%). Efficacy in Corneal Preservation (EPC), Corneal Discarding Coefficient (CDC) and Efficacy Supply of Corneas for Transplantation (ECT) averaged 88%, 37%, and 63% over the years, respectively. The best indexes were presented in the South, Midwest and Southeast regions and the worst in the North and Northeast. Conclusion: In Brazil, the small number of donations and the high rate of discard of corneas are the main difficulties to the adequate attendance to the population demand by CTs. However, the country increased the ability to transplant corneas and reduced waiting lists in 16 years
 
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Publishing Date
2018-09-28
 
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