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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2005.tde-06022007-084813
Document
Author
Full name
José Celso Cunha Guerra Pinto Coelho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Gama, Angelita Habr (President)
Alves, Paulo Roberto Arruda
Tacla, Mounib
Title in Portuguese
Papel da colonoscopia com magnificação de imagem associada à cromoscopia no diagnóstico diferencial entre lesões neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas do intestino grosso
Keywords in Portuguese
Colonoscopia
Diagnóstico diferencial
Intestino grosso/lesões
Neoplasias colorretais/epidemiologia.
Abstract in Portuguese
O Câncer colorretal (CCR) é um problema de saúde importante devido a sua incidência e mortalidade elevadas. O rastreamento e o diagnóstico precoce são a principal estratégia para diminuir a mortalidade pelo CCR. A colonoscopia convencional (CC), constitui o melhor método para o diagnóstico precoce do CCR e para o diagnóstico e tratamento das lesões precurssoras. Entretanto a CC apresenta taxas de falha de detecção não desprezíveis. A colonoscopia com magnificação de imagem (CM), vem sendo utilizada com o intuito de melhorar a performance da CC. A sua principal vantagem é a possibilidade de diferenciar lesões neoplásicas de não-neoplásicas, de maneira que apenas lesões neoplásicas seriam retiradas, diminuindo custos e riscos relacionados ao rastreamento por colonoscopia. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a acurácia da CM para o diagnóstico diferencial entre lesões neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas do intestino grosso por meio da comparação entre o diagnóstico endoscópico e o fornecido pelo exame histopatológico convencional. Entre abril de 2002 e outubro de 2003, cento e vinte pacientes foram incluídos no estudo, tendo-se encontrado 200 lesões. Todas as lesões foram classificadas endoscopicamente através da CM com alta magnificação (até 200X), associada a cromoscopia com índigo carmim, de acordo com a classificação proposta por Kudo, e em seguida excisadas ou biopsiadas para estudo histopatológico. A acurácia da determinação do diagnóstico diferencial endoscópico em relação à histopatologia entre lesões neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas foi de 78,5%. A diferença da CM em relação ao exame histopatológico foi estatisticamente significativa (p<0,0001). Conclui-se que, no atual estágio de desenvolvimento, a CM, pela sua acurácia, não permite excluir o exame histopatológico para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as lesões neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas do intestino grosso.
Title in English
Course of neonatal bacterial meningitis according to birth weight
Keywords in English
Bacterial infection/cerebrospinal fluid
Bacterial meningitis
Low birth weight newborn
Newborn
Very-low birth weight newborn/ cerebrospinal fluid
Abstract in English
Bacterial meningitis in the neonatal period is a severe disease, associated to elevated mortality and sequelae in around 12 to 29% of the survivors. Newborns whose birth weight is < 2,500g have a 3-fold increase in the risk of acquiring meningitis when compared to those whose weight is > or = 2,500; among those with very low birth weight (< 1,500g), the risk increases 17-fold. Objectives: General: to describe the clinical picture and the complications of bacterial meningitis in two groups of newborns, considered according to birth weight (< 2,500g or > or = 2,500g). Specific: to describe and compare the etiological agents, the frequency of neurological signs and symptoms and complications, mortality rate and duration of treatment in both groups. Methods: Observational study of 87 newborns with bacterial meningitis, admitted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Instituto da Criança of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, during an 11-year period (January 1994 to December 2004). The data were obtained through the analysis of hospital files. Statistical analysis was carried out with Fisher's exact test and the non-parametric Mann Whitney test. Results: Bacteria were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 39% of the patients, with 50% of them being Gram-positive and 50%, Gram-negative. Most neonates presented unspecific signs and symptoms: fever (63.2%), irritability (31%), and lethargy (26.4%). The neurological findings occurred in 35.3% of the cases. Complications occurred in 48.2% of the neonates, and were mainly seizures (23%), intracranial hemorrhage (14.9%) and hydrocephalus (13.8%) with a mortality rate of 11.5%. At the comparison between clinical evolution and birth weight, associations between weight > or = 2,500g and seizures (p=0.047), weight > or = 2,500g and concave fontanel (p=0.019), bacteria in the CSF and complications (p=0.008) and bacteria in the CSF and death (p=0.043) were observed. Conclusions: The etiological agents most often identified in the CSF were enterobacteria (41%), followed by B Streptococcus (17.5%), non-B Streptococcus (17.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.7%), Neisseria meningitidis (8.8%) and Enterococcus faecalis (3.0%), with no statistical difference between the type of bacteria and birth weight. The predominant signs and symptoms were unspecific, with neurological findings in 35% of the cases. The higher frequency of neurological signs and symptoms in newborns with birth weight > or = 2,500g suggest a higher degree of central nervous system maturity in these infants. Although the mortality was lower than that observed in previous studies at the same Service, the frequency of complications was high, regardless of birth weight. The presence of bacteria in the CSF was associated to a higher frequency of seizures and mortality. The need for prolonged treatment in newborns with low birth weight suggests higher disease severity in this group of neonates.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-02-08
 
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