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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2009.tde-05032010-172410
Document
Author
Full name
Solange Aparecida Petilo de Carvalho Bricola
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Martins, Milton de Arruda (President)
Maffei, Francisco Humberto de Abreu
Milani Junior, Rodolfo
Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
Terra Filho, Mario
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação dos fatores associados a tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP), em uma série de autópsias de dez anos
Keywords in Portuguese
Autópsia
Diagnóstico
Fatores de risco
Tromboembolia venosa
Tromboembolismo pulmonar
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura demonstra que tromboembolismo venoso permanece como uma doença subdiagnosticada entre os pacientes hospitalizados, com aproximadamente 25% dos casos associados à internação. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as doenças associadas ao desenvolvimento de tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) diagnosticado em autópsias, e demonstrar a frequência de TEP como causa do óbito ou fator contributivo. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle retrospectivo, realizado no Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, no período de 1995 a 2004. Revisamos os relatórios diagnósticos das autópsias, identificando TEP fatal, quando TEP foi a causa de morte, e TEP não fatal, quando TEP foi doença associada. RESULTADOS: 1.506 pacientes (502 casos e 1.004 controles), 18.359 óbitos no período, média 2.040; 71,2% desses submetidos a autópsias. Observou-se importante declínio nas taxas de autópsias. De 1995-1999 (87,2%) e 2000-2004 (54,4%); p = 0,016. Dos 502 casos (3,8%), em 328 (2,5%) TEP foi causa de morte e 174 (1,3%), causa contributiva. Gênero: 51,6% homens e 48,4% mulheres. Idade: TEP fatal (328) vs controles (1.004), diferença estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,013). Condições prevalentes: câncer grupo, 31,4%, pós-operatório grupo, 17,2%, infecção grupo, 11,7%, e AVC grupo, 11%. Câncer de pulmão, 3,5%, câncer de cérebro e linfoma, 2,8%. Tempo de internação foi utilizado como indicador de imobilização. Outras doenças: AVCH (7,7%), pós-operatório de abdome (6,7%), pneumonia (5,9%), AVCI (3,1%) e pós-operatório vascular (4%) foram frequentes no grupo controle. Em contrapartida, aterosclerose (1,4%), ITU (1,2%), pós-operatório de ginecologia (0,8%), pós-operatório de obstetrícia (0,6%) e doença falciforme (0,6%) foram frequentes no grupo TEP. Cirrose, média de 14,9 dias de internação dos controles vs TEP com 4,4 dias (p < 0,001). Análise multivariada incluiu as condições com p 0,20 da univariada, idade e tempo de internação. Fator protetor para TEP: aneurisma de aorta (OR 0,02, IC 95% 0,46-0,56; p = 0,004), cirrose (OR 0,16, IC 95% 0,08-0,34; p < 0,001) e SIDA (OR 0,44, IC 95% 0,23-0,84; p = 0,013). Entretanto, AVCI (OR 1,82, IC 95% 1,04-3,19; p = 0,035), câncer de cérebro (OR 2,47, IC 95% 1,28-4,78; p = 0,007), câncer indeterminado (OR 3,12, IC 95% 1,01-9,68; p = 0,049), DPOC (OR 2,83, IC 95% 1,47-5,43; p = 0,002), ICC (OR 1,71, IC 95% 1,11-2,62; p = 0,015) e ITU (OR 4,34, IC 95% 1,05-17,82; p = 0,042) mostraram associação positiva com TEP. Idade vs TEP (OR 1,10, IC 95% 1,04-1,16; p = 0,001). Tempo de internação vs TEP (OR 1,19, IC 95% 1,05-1,36; p = 0,008). DISCUSSÃO: A porcentagem dos pacientes com TEP permanece inalterada, ocorrência de 4,1% e 3,4% no primero e no segundo períodos, com uma média de 3,8%. Em 50,4% dos pacientes não foi realizado o diagnóstico clínico de TEP. CONCLUSÃO: Constatou-se AVCI, câncer de cérebro indeterminado, DPOC, ICC e ITU com significância estatística e associação com TEP. Algumas fraquezas do presente estudo devem ser apuradas, e talvez explicarão as discordâncias com a literatura para algumas doenças. A identificação de fatores associados a TEP auxiliarão no diagnóstico precoce
Title in English
Evaluation on factors associated to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) in a series of ten years of autopsies
Keywords in English
Autopsies
Diagnosis
Pulmonary thromboembolism
Risc factors
Venous thromboembolism
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: Literature shows that venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains as a sub-diagnostic disease among hospitalized patients, approximately 25% of all cases are associated to hospitalization. PURPOSE: Evaluate diseases associated to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) development diagnosed in autopsies, and demonstrate the frequency of PE as cause of death or as a contributive factor. METHOD: The reports performed from 1995 to 2004 in a Brazilian tertiary referral medical school we reviewed for a retrospective study the autopsies diagnosis, identified as fatal PE, when PE was the cause of death and nonfatal PE, when PE was an associated disease. RESULTS: 1,506 patients (502 cases and 1004 controls), 18,359 deaths during the period, average 2,040; 71.2% of these were submitted to autopsies. It was observed an important decline in the autopsies rates. From 1995-1999 (87.2%) and 2000-2004 (54.4%) p = 0.016. From 502 cases (3.8%), 328 (2.5%) PE was the cause of death and 174 (1.3%) PE was contributive cause. Gender: 51.6% males and 48.4% females. AGE: fatal PE (328) vs controls (1,004) significant statistic difference (p = 0.013). Prevalent Conditions: cancer group, 31.4%, postsurgical group, 17.2%, infectious group, 11.7%, and CVA group, 11%. Pulmonary Cancer, 3.5%, Brain cancer and Lymphoma, 2.8%. Hospitalization period was taken as immobilization indicator. Other diseases: HCVA (7.7%), abdomen postsurgical (6.7%), pneumonia (5.9%), ICVA (3.1%) and vascular postsurgical (4%) were frequent in the control group. On the other hand, atherosclerosis (1.4%), UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) (1.2%), gynecology postsurgical (0.8%), obstetrics postsurgical (0.6%) and sickle cell anemia (0.6%) were frequent in the PE group. Cirrhosis, average of 14.9 hospitalization days of the controls vs PE with 4.4 days (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis includes the in univariated analysis with p 0.20, age and the hospitalization period. Protector factor for PE: Aortic aneurysm (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.46-0.56; p = 0.004), cirrhosis (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34; p < 0.001) and SIDA (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.84; p = 0.013). However, ICVA (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.04-3.19; p = 0.035); brain cancer (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.28-4.78; p = 0.007); undetermined cancer (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.01-9.68, p= 0.049), COPD (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.47-5.43; p = 0.002), CHF (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.11-2.62; p = 0.015) and UTI (OR 4.34, 95% CI 1.05-17.82; p = 0.042), showed positive association with PE. Age vs PE (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16; p = 0.001). Hospitalization Period vs PE (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.36; p = 0.008). DISCUSSION: The percentage of patients with PE remains unchanged, occurrence of 4.1% and 3.4% in the first and second periods, with an average of 3.8%. In 50.4% of the patients, the clinical diagnosis of TEP was not performed. CONCLUSION: We certified ICVA, brain cancer, undetermined cancer, COPD, CHF and UTI with significant association with PE. Some weaknesses of the present study should be refined, and maybe will explain the disagreement with the literature to some diseases. The identification of factors associated to PE will help in precocious diagnosis
 
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Publishing Date
2010-03-15
 
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