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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2010.tde-05042010-165356
Document
Author
Full name
Alexandre Augusto Menegaz de Almeida
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Damiani, Durval (President)
Kochi, Cristiane
Leme, Renata Barco de Abreu
Title in Portuguese
Consumo de chocolate, estado nutricional e atividade física e de lazer na adolescência escolar
Keywords in Portuguese
Adolescência
Atividade física
Chocolate
Estado nutricional
Abstract in Portuguese
A adolescência é uma fase de mudanças significativas que ocorrem nas dimensões biológica, fisiológica, social e psicológica dos jovens. A prática regular de atividades físicas e a nutrição adequada têm sido apontadas como dois dos principais comportamentos para a prevenção e a manutenção da saúde. Entre os alimentos de preferência dos adolescentes encontra-se o chocolate. O objetivo deste trabalho é conhecer os hábitos alimentares e de chocolate e de atividade física de adolescentes. Resultados: Dos 827 adolescentes participantes, 451 eram meninos (54,5%) e 376 meninas (45,5%). De acordo com o estado nutricional dos meninos havia 301 eutróficos e 297 meninas eutróficas (72,3%). Apresentaram sobrepeso 87 meninos e 55 meninas (17,2%). Os obesos somaram 63 meninos e 24 meninas (10,5%). Meninos em quaisquer subgrupos de estado nutricional, percorrem distância em metros (m) significantemente maior que meninas no teste de corrida de 6 minutos. Considerado o desempenho segundo o estado nutricional, o dos meninos eutróficos (1028m) é significantemente maior que o dos com sobrepeso (891m) e obesos (840m). No grupo das meninas eutróficas (801m), a vantagem também é significantemente maior que das obesas (721m), mas não houve índice estatístico considerável em relação ao grupo das com sobrepeso (777m). Entre os gêneros, a frequência de consumo de carboidrato/mês ingeridas pelos meninos eutróficos é significantemente maior que o das meninas eutróficas. Quanto ao consumo de chocolate não houve diferença estatisticamente entre os gêneros, bem como entre os diferentes estados nutricionais. Meninos eutróficos consomem em média 502 gramas (g) enquanto que as meninas consomem 636g, para o grupo sobrepeso, XIII meninos consomem em média 463g e meninas 260g, no grupo obeso os meninos consomem 447g e meninas 364g. Conclusão: A baixa incidência de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesos se deve ao incentivo da escola em prática de atividade física. Escola deve fomentar trabalhos de educação nutricional para prevenir e erradicar a obesidade. A subjetividade de instrumentos como questionários sugerem imprecisão quando confrontados com dados objetivos. Os resultados não mostraram diferenças de consumo para o chocolate, seja em parte pelos avaliados não responderam realmente o seu consumo, ou então, pela limitação do próprio instrumento quanto ao entendimento.
Title in English
Chocolate consumption, nutritional status, physical activity and leisure physical activities in school adolescence
Keywords in English
Adolescence
Chocolate
Nutritional status
Physical activity
Abstract in English
Adolescence is a well known phase of significant changes that occur at the biological, physiological, social and psychological dimensions of youngsters. The regular practice of physical activities and an adequate nutrition pattern have been pointed out as two of the most important behaviors to contribute for a good health prevention and maintenance. Chocolate is undoubtedly known to be as one of adolescents most preferred foods. The objective of this scientific research is to get knowledge of adolescents feeding habits and their physical activities. Results: Out of the 827 participating adolescents, 451 were boys (54.5%) and 376 were girls (45.5%). According to their nutritional status, there were 301 eutrophic boys and 297 eutrophic girls (72.3%). Showed to be overweight 87 boys and 55 girls (17.2%). Obese subjects totaled 63 boys and 24 girls (10.5%). Boys in any of the nutritional status subgroups showed to run a distance in metros (m) significantly longer than the girls, in the 6- minute running test. When the performance is considered according to the nutritional status, the performance of eutrophic boys (1,028m) is significantly higher than those showed by overweight (891m) and obese (840m) boys. In the eutrophic girls group (801m), the performance advantage is also significantly higher when compared to the obese girls (721m), however no significant statistic index difference was detected in relation to the overweight group (777m). The frequency of carbohydrate consumption is greater in the eutrophic boys than in the eutrophic girls. As for the consumption of chocolate, no significant statistical difference was found between the genders, as well as between the different nutritional statuses. Eutrophic boys XV consume an average of 502 grams (g), while the girls consume 636g; as for the overweight group, boys consume an average of 463g and girls 260g, and in the obese group the boys consume 447g and the girls 364g. Conclusion: The low incidence of overweight and obese adolescents is strongly due to school incentive towards the practice of physical activity. The school shall also motivate and foment nutritional education works to prevent and help eradicate obesity. The subjectivity of instruments and tools such as questionnaires suggest some imprecision when faced with objective data. The results did not show significant chocolate consumption differences, maybe partly because the researched subjects did not inform their real consumption, or maybe due to the limitation of the own instrument regarding its reasonable understanding.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-07
 
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