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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2012.tde-27072012-113110
Document
Author
Full name
José Marcelo e Souza Mafra
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Fu, Carolina (President)
Tanaka, Clarice
Yamauchi, Liria Yuri
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação da qualidade de vida e funcionalidade do paciente crítico após alta hospitalar
Keywords in Portuguese
Atividades de vida diária
Doença crítica
Qualidade de vida
Terapia intensiva
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: O número de sobreviventes após um evento grave tem aumentado consideravelmente, e muitas vezes acarretando um maior tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e hospitalar. Frequentemente esses pacientes evoluem com decréscimo da qualidade de vida e comprometimento das habilidades funcionais para realização de suas atividades de vida diária. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS), as atividades básicas de vida diária (ABVD) e as atividades instrumentais de vida diária (AIVD) de pacientes críticos após a alta hospitalar. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo observacional longitudinal, onde foram selecionados pacientes clínicos e/ou cirúrgicos, idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, submetidos a pelo menos 24 horas de ventilação mecânica. As avaliações foram feitas através de questionários direcionados para avaliar a QVRS (SF-36), as ABVD (Índice de Barthel e Índice de Katz) e AIVD (Health Assessement Questionaire Disability índex [HAQ-DI]). Os instrumentos foram aplicados através de entrevista telefônica nos primeiros 30 dias após a alta hospitalar e no terceiro e sexto meses subsequentes. RESULTADOS: Pelos critérios de inclusão foram selecionados 431 pacientes após a alta da UTI, destes 128 preencheram os critérios de exclusão e 142 perdidos antes da alta hospitalar. Dos 161 pacientes que receberam alta hospitalar e, portanto elegíveis para o estudo, foi possível realizar contato com 75, sendo esta a amostra inicial do estudo. Entre os 86 pacientes perdidos, a maioria (61) foi por impossibilidade de contato telefônico (número errado ou inexistente, mudança de cidade e/ou estado), os demais, por recusa, óbito e reinternação. Foram considerados idosos 29 pacientes (38,6 %). Houve melhora progressiva de todos os domínios do SF-36 ao longo do tempo de avaliação, sendo que os domínios mais comprometidos foram: aspecto físico, aspecto emocional e capacidade funcional. O componente físico do SF-36 e o índice de Katz mostraram-se influenciados pela idade (p=0,03) e (p=0,01) respectivamente. O Índice de Katz apresentou influência do Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (p=0,02). As ABVD e AIVD avaliadas pelos questionários Katz, Barthel e HAQ-DI ao longo do tempo, mostraram melhora progressiva nas atividades funcionais de acordo com a pontuação de cada instrumento e com diferenças significativas entre os períodos de avaliação (p<0,05). O HAQ-DI apresentou as atividades usuais como sendo as mais comprometidas. CONCLUSÕES: A QVRS e as ABVD e AIVD dos pacientes avaliados neste estudo apresentaram uma melhora progressiva no decorrer de seis meses após a alta hospitalar, mas ainda apresentando comprometimento até a última avaliação. Os idosos e os mais graves apresentaram maior comprometimento
Title in English
Evaluation of quality of life and functionality of critical ill patients following hospital discharge
Keywords in English
Activities of daily living
Critical illness
Intensive care
Quality of life
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: The number of surviving patients following a severe event has increased considerably, often leading to a longer intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Frequently, these patients evolve with decreased quality of life and impaired functional abilities to perform their activities of daily living. This study was aimed at evaluating the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for critical ill patients after hospital discharge. METHOD: A longitudinal observational study was conducted, and clinical and/or surgical patients aged 18 years-old who had been submitted to at least 24 hours of mechanical ventilation were screened. Assessments were conducted using targeted questionnaires to evaluate HRQoL (SF-36), BADL (Barthel Index and Katz Index), and IADL (Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index [HAQ-DI]). These instruments were applied via telephone interviews within the first 30 days following hospital discharge, and three and six months later. RESULTS: According to inclusion criteria, 431 patients were included following hospital discharge; of these, 128 met exclusion criteria, and 142 were lost to follow-up before hospital discharge. Of the 161 patients who had been discharged from hospital and therefore were considered eligible for the study, 75 patients could be contacted; this was the initial sample of the study. For the 86 lost to follow-up patients, most of them (61) could not be contacted by telephone (incorrect or nonexistent number, moved to other city and/or state) and the remaining due to refusal, death, and readmission. 29 patients were considered elderly (38.6%). All SF-36 domains progressively improved in the course of evaluation, and Role-Physical, Role-Emotional and Physical Functioning were the most impaired domains. The physical component of SF-36 and the Katz Index have been shown to be influenced by age (p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively). Katz Index was also influenced by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (p=0.02). It was shown that BADL and IADL assessed by Katz, Barthel and HAQ-DI questionnaires over time have progressively improved in terms of functional activities, according to each instrument scoring and significant differences between evaluation periods (p<0.05). HAQ-DI has shown that usual activities were the most impaired. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL, BADL and IADL for patients evaluated in this study were progressively improved within 6 months after hospital discharge, but these patients were still impaired up to the last evaluation. Elderly and more severe patients demonstrated greater impairment
 
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Publishing Date
2012-07-31
 
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