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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2016.tde-20092016-163810
Document
Author
Full name
Graça Correia Rosas
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Souza, Heraldo Possolo de (President)
Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo
Lima, Thais Martins de
Oliveira, Karina Griesi
Santos, Diogo Gonçalves Biagi dos
Title in Portuguese
Estudo da variação da expressão de PGC-1 alfa na reprogramação e diferenciação de células-tronco pluripotentes induzidas
Keywords in Portuguese
Células-tronco pluripotentes induzidas
Diferenciação celular
Doenças cardiovasculares
Metabolismo
Miócitos cardíacos
Mitocôndrias
PGC-1 alfa
Reprogramação celular
Transdução genética
Abstract in Portuguese
As doenças cardiovasculares representam a maior causa de mortalidade a nível mundial. Desde o conhecimento da importância da mitocôndria no metabolismo do cardiomiócito, alterações no funcionamento desta organela têm sido associadas a um dos principais causadores do infarto do miocárdio e consequente morte celular. O cofator de transcrição PGC-1alfa tem sido alvo de diversos estudos relacionados com o metabolismo celular devido à sua forte participação na biogênese mitocondrial. Considerando a limitação de material biológico para o estudo de doenças cardíacas, muito se tem investido no estudo de células-tronco pluripotentes induzidas (iPSCs). Esta tese teve como principal objetivo a avaliação dos efeitos da variação da expressão de PGC-1alfa em iPSCs e na sua diferenciação em cardiomiócitos. Após estabelecimento de um protocolo de reprogramação celular, em que ocorre geração de iPSCs a partir de fibroblastos humanos, induzimos a inibição da expressão de PGC-1alfa em 50% e 70% pelo uso de vetores lentivirais, e analisamos o estado de pluripotência através da avaliação de expressão genica e proteica dos principais marcadores - SSEA4, TRA-1-60, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, REX1, TRA-1-81. Não observamos diferenças significativas no conteúdo destes marcadores entre os clones de iPSC controle e inibidos. Estabelecemos um protocolo de diferenciação de iPSCs em cardiomiócitos com elevada taxa de reprodutibilidade, através da adaptação de protocolos descritos na literatura, e submetemos estas iPSCs à diferenciação. As células geradas pela diferenciação do clone controle apresentaram características típicas de cardiomiócito: contratilidade e alta expressão molecular de troponina T e troponina I. Em contraste, as células com 70% de inibição de PGC-1alfa se mostraram incapazes de contrair e com baixa expressão de troponina. Através de uma análise dos níveis de expressão genica e proteica de diversos marcadores expressos durante o processo de diferenciação (T, NKX2.5, MIXL1, MYL7, ISL1), observamos que o clone com maior inibição de PGC-1alfa apresentou sempre níveis de expressão diminuídos em relação aos clones controle. Em conclusão, podemos afirmar que o PGC-1alfa não interfere com as características de auto-renovação e pluripotência das iPSCs mas possui um papel essencial na diferenciação de células-tronco pluriotentes induzidas em cardiomiócitos. Os resultados obtidos contribuem para informações preliminares acerca do desenvolvimento de iPSCs com inibição da expressão de PGC-1alfa durante a diferenciação cardíaca, mas estudos relativos ao potencial papel deste cofator durante o desenvolvimento cardíaco in vivo ainda precisam ser aprofundados, utilizando outros modelos de estudo
Title in English
A study of the variation in expression of PGC-1alfa on the reprogramming and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells
Keywords in English
Cardiovascular diseases
Cell differentiation
Cellular reprogramming
Induced pluripotent stem cells
Metabolism
Mitochondria
Myocyte cardiac
PGC-1 alpha
Transduction genetic
Abstract in English
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Since the knowledge of the importance of mitochondria in the cardiomyocyte metabolism, changes in the functioning of this organelle has been associated with one of the main causes of myocardial infarction and subsequent cell death. The transcriptional cofactor PGC-1alpha has been subjected to several studies related to cell metabolism due to its strong involvement in mitochondrial biogenesis. Considering the limitations of biological material in the study of heart disease, there has been a lot of investment in the study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of the variation in expression of PGC-1alpha in iPSCs and it's differentiation in cardiomyocytes. After the estabilshment of a cellular reprogramming protocol, where iPSCs is generated from human fibroblasts, the expression of PGC-1alpha was induced by 50% and 70% with the use of lentiviral vectors and the state of pluripotency was determined by analyzing the gene and protein expression of the main markers - SSEA4, TRA- 1-60, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, REX1, TRA- 1- 81. There were no significant differences observed in the content of these markers between the iPSC clones control and inhibited. A protocol for the differentiation of iPSCs into cardyomyocites was established with a high reproducibility rate, by adapting existing protocols in the general literature, submiting these iPSCs into diferentiation. The cells generated from the differentiation of the control clone showed typical characteristis of cardiomyocytes: contractility and high molecular expression of troponin T and troponin I. In contrast, the cells with 70% inhibition PGC-1alpha were unable to contract and had low troponin expression. Through an analysis of gene expression and protein levels of several markers expressed during the differentiation process (T, Nkx2.5, MIXL1, MYL7, ISL1), the clone with greater inhibition of PGC-1alpha always showed decreased expression levels compared to control clones. In conclusion, we can say that the PGC-1alpha does not interfere with the characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency of iPSCs but has an essential role in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells induced into cardiomyocytes. These results were obtained thanks an original approche based on iPSC technology enabling genetic modifications of the cells and controled differentiation into cardiomyocytes, but the potential role of PGC-1alpha on in vivo cardiac development or cardiomyocytes maturation remaisn to be evaluated using other models
 
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Publishing Date
2016-09-21
 
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