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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2010.tde-27092010-145739
Document
Author
Full name
Roberta Sandra da Silva Tanizawa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Velloso, Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira (President)
Gualandro, Sandra Fatima Menosi
Lopes, Luiz Fernando
Title in Portuguese
Estudo morfológico e por citogenética da medula óssea de portadores de síndrome mielodisplásica secundária no Serviço de Hematologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise citogenética
Imunoistoquímica
Medula óssea
Neoplasias associadas à terapia
Segunda malignidade
Síndromes mielodisplásicas
Abstract in Portuguese
As Síndromes mielodisplásicas (SMD) são doenças clonais da célula progenitora hematopoética, cursando com citopenias, medula óssea displástica e tendência à evolução para leucemia. As SMD secundárias estão associadas a fatores de risco como doenças congênitas (Anemia de Fanconi), doenças hematológicas adquiridas (aplasia medular, HPN), exposição à quimioterápicos (alquilantes, inibidores de topoisomerase II) e radioterapia e substâncias químicas (benzeno, petróleo). Agentes imunossupressores associados ou não a fatores hemopoéticos particularmente utilizados para tratamento da Aplasia medular também se associam à SMD secundária. A OMS recentemente adotou o termo síndrome mielodisplásica/neoplasia mielóde (SMD/NM) relacionada à terapêutica para englobar casos de neoplasias mielóides que preencham critérios morfológicos não somente de SMD, mas também de leucemia mielóide aguda (LMA) ou neoplasias mieloproliferativas. O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar dados clínicos, morfológicos e citogenéticos de 42 portadores de SMD/NM secundária em uma coorte de pacientes diagnosticados no SH-HCFMUSP no período de 1987 a 2008. Vinte e três pacientes (54,8%) eram homens, com mediana de idade de 53,5 (4-88) anos. 45,2% eram portadores de doenças onco-hematológicas, 26,2% de anemia aplástica, 14,3% de tumores sólidos e 14,3% de outras doenças (auto-imunes e transplante de órgãos sólidos). 33% dos pacientes utilizaram exclusivamente QT, 26% combinação QT e RT, 2% RT isolada e 28% agentes imunossupressores. Cinco (11,9%) pacientes haviam sido submetidos a TCTH autólogo para tratamento de doença oncohematológica prévia. A mediana da latência entre a doença primária e a SMD secundária foi de 85 meses (23- 221 meses). Oito pacientes foram submetidos ao TCTH alogênico aparentado para tratamento da SMD secundária. Anemia, neutropenia, plaquetopenia e blastos circulantes foram observados em 64,3%, 54,8%, 78,6% e 26,2% dos casos respectivamente. Cerca de 1/3 dos aspirados medulares apresentavam hemodiluição, 29,7% apresentavam hipocelularidade global, 62,2% apresentavam contagem de blastos superior a 5% e 14,3% sideroblastos em anel acima de 15%. Displasia da série eritróide, granulocítica e megacariocítica foi observada em 79,4%, 77,1% e 68,2% dos casos respectivamente. A histologia medular realizada em 22 casos revelou hipocelularidade global, ALIPs e nódulos linfóides em 9,1%, 23,8% e 40,9% dos casos. A detecção por imunoistoquímica de células CD34>1%, CD117>1%, agrupamento de células CD34+ e de CD117+ e da proteína p53+ foi observada respectivamente em 77,2%, 82,3%, 59%, 29,4% e 33,3% dos casos. Anormalidades clonais foram observadas em 84,3% dos casos, com grande predomínio das não balanceadas (96%), sendo 37% com monossomia 7, 44,4% cariótipos complexos e 18% com outras anormalidades . A mediana de sobrevida de sobrevida global foi de 5,7 meses, pacientes submetidos ao TCTH alogênico para tratamento da SMD/NM secundária tiveram mediana de 40 meses (p=0,007). Fatores associados à pior sobrevida incluíram: doença oncohematológica prévia, baixa contagem plaquetária, elevação de DHL e ferritina, presença de células CD117+ agrupadas, imunoexpressão positiva da p53, citogenética anormal, IPSS intermediário II ou alto risco. Nenhum parâmetro estudado do aspirado medular se associou à sobrevida. Houve tendência à associação da imunoexpressão positiva de p53 a cariótipo anormal e IPSS de maior risco. Não se observou associação entre a presença de ALIP, porcentagem de blastos na morfologia medular e células CD34+ e CD117+. Estes dados reforçam a importância da análise citogenética e da imunoistoquímica da biópsia de medula óssea para diagnóstico e prognóstico das SMD secundárias e do TCTH alogênico no seu tratamento. Mais estudos com maior número de casos devem ser realizados para confirmar a importância do escore IPSS na SMD secundárias, provavelmente substituindo a porcentagem de blastos ao aspirado medular, pela presença de células precursoras detectadas por imunoistoquímica
Title in English
Morphological and cytogenetic bone marrow studies in patients with secondary myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosed at Department of Hematology of Clinical Hospital of São Paulo Medical School
Keywords in English
Bone marrow
Cytogenetic analysis
Immunohistochemistry
Myelodysplastics syndromes
Second malignancy
Therapy-associated neoplasms
Abstract in English
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders, characterized by cytopenias, dysplastic bone marrow (BM) and propensity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Secondary MDS are associated with risk factors such as congenital disorders (Fanconis anemia), acquired bone marrow failures, exposure to chemotherapy (alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors) agents and radiation and chemicals (benzene, petroleum). Immunosuppressive agents associated with hematopoietic growth factors are also associated with secondary MDS. The WHO classification has recently adopted the term therapy-related myeloid neoplasms for cases of myeloid malignancies that fulfill morphological criteria not only for MDS but also for AML or myeloproliferative neoplasms.The aim of the study was to analyze clinical, morphological and cytogenetic features of 42 patients with secondary MDS/MN in a cohort of patients diagnosed at our institution from 1987 to 2008. 23 patients (54.8%) were male, median age 53.5 (4-88) years. 45.2% had primary hematologic malignancies, 26.2% aplastic anemia, 14.3% solid tumors and 14.3% other diseases (autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation). 33% had undergone chemotherapy alone, 2% RT alone, 26% both modalities and 28% immunosuppressive agents. Five (11.9%) patients had undergone autologous HSCT for treatment of previous malignancies. The median latency between the primary disease and secondary MDS/MN was 85 (23-221) months. Eight patients underwent allogeneic HSCT (allo- HSCT) for treatment of related secondary MDS. Anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and peripheral blasts were observed in 64.3%, 54.8%, 78.6% and 26.2%, respectively. BM aspirates was poorly representative in 1/3 of cases, 29.7% global hypocellularity, 62.2% more than 5% of blast counts and 14.3% more than 15% of ring sideroblasts. Dysplasia in erythroid, granulocytic and megakaryocytic series was observed in 79.4%, 77.1% and 68.2%, respectively. Twenty two BM biopsies were performed. Global hypocellularity, ALIP and lymphoid nodules were shown in 9.1%, 23.8% and 40.9%. The immunohistochemistry showed more than 1% of CD34+ and CD117+ cells, clusters of CD34+ and CD117+ and immunoexpression of p53 protein in 77.2%, 82.3%, 59%, 29.4% and 33.3%, respectively. Clonal abnormalities were observed in 84.3% of cases with high prevalence of unbalanced (96%) rearrangements. 37% showed monosomy 7 and 44.4% complex karyotypes. The median overall survival was 5.7 for all patients and 40 months for patients treated with allo-HSCT (P=0.007). Hematologic malignancies, low platelet count, serum high LDH and ferritin, detection of CD117+ clusters, positive immunoexpression of p53, abnormal cytogenetics, intermediate-II or high-risk IPSS groups were associated with poor survival. No parameter studied from bone marrow aspirate had impact in survival. p53 expression was associated to abnormal karyotype (P=0.092) and IPSS risk (P=0.054). There was no association between the presence of ALIP, BM blast counts and immunoexpression of CD34+ and CD117+. Our study shows that cytogenetic analysis and BM immunohistochemistry are very important in diagnosis and prognosis, and that allo-HSCT could improve the survival of secondary MDS/MN. More studies with larger numbers of cases should be conducted to confirm the importance of the IPSS for secondary MDS, probably replacing the bone marrow aspirate blast counts by the immunohistochemistry detection of precursor cells
 
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Publishing Date
2010-09-28
 
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