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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2017.tde-04082017-100412
Document
Author
Full name
Leonardo Alfonso Bustamante Lopez
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Nahas, Caio Sergio Rizkallah (President)
Ribeiro Júnior, Ulysses
Campos, Fábio Guilherme Caserta Maryssael de
Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação de variáveis associadas à redução do número de linfonodos em espécime cirúrgico de câncer de reto após quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante
Keywords in Portuguese
Cirurgia colorretal
Estadiamento de neoplasias
Laparoscopia
Linfonodos
Neoplasias retais
Terapia neoadjuvante
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: De acordo com a União Internacional Contra o Câncer um mínimo de 12 linfonodos (LN) deve ser obtido no espécime cirúrgico para o estadiamento do câncer colorretal (CCR). Estudos recentes reportaram que o uso da quimioirradioterapia neoadjuvante (QRN) pode resultar na não obtenção do número mínimo de LN na peça em 30-52% dos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar os fatores relacionados à redução do número de LN ressecados em pacientes submetidos à neoadjuvancia e a excisão total do mesorreto. Pacientes e métodos: De janeiro de 2012 a março de 2013, 160 pacientes com câncer de reto foram submetidos à QRN (5-FU e 5040 Gys) seguida de excisão total de mesorreto com ligadura dos vasos mesentéricos inferiores nas suas raízes. Foram incluídos pacientes com estadiamento T3, T4 e/ou N+ que distavam até 10cm da borda anal e T2N0 que distavam até 7 cm da borda anal. Foram excluídos pacientes cujo tratamento com quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante foi incompleto, ou que tiveram atrasos significativos para re-estadiamento e/ou realização da cirurgia. Todos foram estadiados através de toque retal, colonoscopia, TC de tórax e de abdome, e RM de pelve e igualmente re-estadiados 8 semanas após o término da neoadjuvância, operados e submetidos a excisão total do mesorreto. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos: A) menos de 12 LN, e B) 12 ou mais LN. Foram estudadas as possíveis variáveis relacionadas ao número de LN obtidos: sexo, idade, presença de LN acometidos, tamanho do tumor, localização da altura do tumor no reto, comprimento da peça, preservação esfincteriana, via de acesso, estadiamento inicial, grau de resposta tumoral e resposta patológica à quimiorrradioterapia neoadjuvante. Resultados: Noventa e cinco pacientes (60 masculinos) preencheram os critérios de inclusão e conseguiram ser tratados, re-estadiados e operados dentro das datas pré-estabelecidas. A média de LN ressecados foi 23,2 (3-67). Resposta patológica completa foi obtida em 18 pacientes (19%). Um mínimo de 12 LN foram obtidos em 81 pacientes (85%). Dentre os 14 doentes que obtiveram menos de 12 LN, 7 (50%) eram respostas patológicas completas. De todas as variáveis estudadas apenas resposta patológica completa na peça foi fator associado à não obtenção do número mínimo de 12 LN (p=0,002). Conclusões: Em pacientes submetidos à QRN e ETM, a resposta patológica completa foi o único fator associado a não obtenção de um mínimo de 12 de LN na peça
Title in English
Evaluation of variables associated to the reduction in the number of lymph nodes in rectal cancer specimen after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy
Keywords in English
Colorectal surgery
Laparoscopy
Lymph nodes
Neoadjuvant therapy
Rectal cancer
Staging neoplasias
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: According to the International Union against Cancer a minimum of 12 lymph nodes (LN) must be obtained from the surgical specimen for staging colorrectal cancer. However, recent studies reported that neoadjuvant chemoradiation may result in failure to obtain a minimum number of LN in 30-52 % of patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with decreased number of LN resected in patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TEM). METHODS: From January/2012 to March/2013, 160 patients with rectal cancer underwent CRT (5 - FU and Gys 5040) followed by TEM and ligation of inferior mesenteric vessels in the roots. Patients with stage T3, T4 and/or N + within 10cm from anal verge were included. Patients with T2N0 located within 7cm from the anal verge were also included. Patients who were not able to complete the chemoradiation treatment or who presented significant delay on restaging and/or surgery were excluded from analyses. All patients were staged by digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, CT of the abdomen and chest, and MRI of the pelvis. Patients were re-staged 8 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant therapy, and submitted to total mesorectal excision right after that. Patients were stratified according to LN retrieval in two groups: A) less than 12 LN, B) 12 or more LN. Possible factors associated with the decreased number of LN were evaluated: gender, age, presence of metastatic LN, tumor size, tumor location, and length of the specimen, sphincter preservation, surgical access, initial staging, tumor regression grade and pathological response to chemoradiation. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients (60 male) met the inclusion criteria and were able to be treated, re-staged and operated within the pre-established intervals. The mean number of resected LN was 23.2 (3-67). Pathological complete response was achieved in 18 patients (19%). A minimum of 12 LN were obtained from 81 patients (85%). Half of the 14 patients with less than 12 LN presented pathologic complete response. Of all the variables studied only pathologic complete response was associated with less than 12 LN yield (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In patients submitted to chemoradiation followed by TME the complete pathological response was the only factor associated with failure to obtain a minimum of 12 LN in the specimen
 
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Publishing Date
2017-08-04
 
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