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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2013.tde-05022014-124351
Document
Author
Full name
Juliana Midori Iqueda Prieto
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Sipahi, Aytan Miranda (President)
Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky
Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação do consumo alimentar e do estado nutricional em portadores da Doença de Crohn
Keywords in Portuguese
Consumo de alimentos
Doença de Crohn
Estado nutricional
Macronutrientes
Micronutrientes
Abstract in Portuguese
A doença de Cronh é uma doença inflamatória intestinal que, por ter como seus sintomas mais comuns a diarreia, a dor abdominal e febre, a perda de peso e a desnutrição são os distúrbios nutricionais mais prevalentes, como resultado de muitos fatores, como a diminuição da ingestão, má absorção, aumento das perdas intestinais e aumento da demanda energética, podendo comprometer o estado nutricional e a qualidade de vida, tornando-se importante estudar o perfil dietético e o nutricional desses pacientes. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o consumo alimentar e o estado nutricional de portadores de doença de Crohn acompanhados em ambulatório do HCFMUSP. A avaliação do estado nutricional foi baseada em exames bioquímicos, composição corporal e pelo IMC; a avaliação do consumo alimentar foi feita pelo Registro Alimentar de 3 dias alternados, e a adequação da ingestão avaliada de acordo com referências nacionais e internacionais. Participaram do estudo 217 pacientes e 65 controles. Entre os pacientes, 54,4% foram classificados em eutrofia, porém o IMC médio ficou abaixo dos controles (23,8 vs 26,9kg/m2, p=0). O IMC dos pacientes com ressecção intestinal foi menor daqueles sem ressecção (23,1 vs 24,4kg/m2, p=0,045). A deficiência de vitamina B12 foi de 19% entre os pacientes e 9% entre os controles, sendo mais comum naqueles pacientes com localização ileal (23%) e com ressecção intestinal (23%). Os níveis de vitamina B12 foram correlacionados negativamente com a PCR (r=-0,13, p=0,059). A insuficiência de 25-hidroxivitamina D foi de 63% entre os pacientes e 74% entre os controles, sendo mais comum nos pacientes com PCR > 3mg/l (69%) e, a deficiência foi de 6% entre os pacientes e 3% entre os controles, sendo que aqueles com deficiência apresentam mais tempo de doença (13,9 anos). Os pacientes tiveram menores níveis de colesterol (163,9 vs 180,7mg/dl, p=0,001) e de LDL (83,9 vs 109,9mg/dl, p=0) e maiores de HDL (56,6 vs 51,1mg/dl, p=0,026) e triglicérides (121,7 vs 100,7mg/dl, p=0,091) que os controles, acontecendo o mesmo naqueles pacientes com ressecção intestinal. Apresentaram anemia 20% dos pacientes e apenas 3% dos controles, sendo mais comum naqueles pacientes com PCR > 3mg/l (25%) e com ressecção intestinal (23%). Apesar de 54,4% dos pacientes não atingirem 90% da necessidade de consumo energética, essa inadequação foi mais comum nos controles (89%). Pacientes e controles tiveram singelas adequações ao consumo de macronutrientes e fibras, porém o alto consumo de proteínas foi maior nos controles. O consumo de colesterol foi maior e o de fibras, menor nos pacientes em atividade. A inadequação do consumo de micronutrientes foi alta e equivalente entre pacientes e controles para vitamina D, E e Ca, sendo maior nos pacientes para Se, Zn e as vitaminas B1, B3, B6, B12 e C. Houve altas prevalências de pacientes e controles com baixo consumo de "cereais, tubérculos e raízes", frutas, hortaliças e lácteos, e com alto consumo de "carnes e ovos", "açúcares e doces" e "óleos e gorduras". Apesar de a qualidade da dieta não diferir muito entre pacientes e controles, tendo até uma maior proporção destes com baixo consumo energético, e de o estado nutricional dos pacientes estar melhorando, pelas características da doença, eles continuam em risco nutricional, sendo de vital importância o monitoramento nutricional, principalmente daqueles que apresentam maior risco nutricional, os pacientes em atividade, com PCR > 3mg/l, com ressecções intestinais e com maior tempo de doença
Title in English
Food intake and nutritional status assessment in Crohn's disease patients
Keywords in English
Crohn disease
Food consumption
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Nutritional status
Abstract in English
Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease whose most common symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. As a result, weight loss and malnutrition are the most prevalent nutritional disorders due to many factors: decreased intake, poor absorption, increased intestinal losses and increased energy demand. As many factors may compromise the nutritional status and quality of life of these patients, it is important to study their dietary and nutritional profile. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the dietary intake and nutritional status of Crohn's disease outpatients. The nutritional status was based on biochemical tests, body composition and body mass index. Food intake was evaluated by an alternate three-day Food Record, and the adequacy of intake was evaluated according to national and international references. The study included 217 patients and 65 controls. Out of the patients, 54.4% were classified as normal-weight, but the mean body mass index was lower than controls (23.8 vs. 26.9 kg/m2, p = 0). The body mass index of patients with bowel resection was lower than those without resection (23.1 vs. 24.4 kg/m2, p = 0.045). Vitamin B12 deficiency was 19% among patients and 9% among controls, being more common in patients with the disease located in the ileum (23%) and bowel resection (23%). Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with CRP (r = -0.13, p = 0.059). The 25- hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency was 63% among patients and 74% among controls, and was more common in patients with CRP > 3mg / l (69%), whereas the deficiency reported was 6% among patients and 3% among controls, and those who presented with deficiency had the disease over long periods of time (13.9 years). Patients had lower cholesterol levels (163.9 vs. 180.7 mg/dl, p = 0.001) and LDL (83.9 vs. 109.9 mg/dl, p = 0) and higher HDL (56.6 vs. 51.1 mg/dl, p = 0.026) and triglycerides (121.7 vs. 100.7 mg/dl, p = 0.091) than controls, and the same was reported in those patients with intestinal resection. Anemia was present in 20% of patients and only 3% of controls, being more common in those patients with CRP > 3mg/l (25%) and bowel resection (23%). Although 54.4% of patients did not attain 90% of estimated energy requirement, this inadequacy was more common in controls (89%). Patients and controls had modestly adequate consumption for macronutrients and fiber, but higher protein intake than controls. Active patients had higher intake of cholesterol but lower intake of fibers. Inadequate intake of micronutrients was high and similar between patients and controls for vitamin D, E and calcium, and higher in patients for selenium, zinc and vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12 and C. There was a high prevalence of patients and controls with low consumption of "cereals, tubers and roots", fruit, vegetables and dairy products, and high consumption of "meat and eggs", "sugars and sweets" and "oils and fats". Although the quality of the diet did not differ greatly between patients and controls, and considering that there was a high proportion of controls with low energy intake and that the CD patients' nutritional status improved due to the characteristics of the disease, these patients remain at nutritional risk. Therefore, it is imperative to continuously monitor their nutritional status, mainly those presenting with higher nutritional risk, patients with active CD, CRP > 3mg/l, bowel resection and those with CD over long periods of time
 
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Publishing Date
2014-02-05
 
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